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AMA Recap of CEO and Co-founder of Chromia, Henrik Hjelte in the @binancenigeria Telegram group on 03/05/2020.

Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Please join me to welcome, “CHROMIA CEO & Co-founder, Henrik Hjelte” and “ CMO, Serge lubkin”
Oh, before we proceed, kindly introduce yourselves and tell us a bit about your roles at Chromia u/sergelubkin & u/henrik_hjelte.
Henrik Hjelte,
Ok, I’m Henrik, I’m CEO of ChromaWay that crated the Chromia project. My background is a bit mixed: developer for 30+ years (since 80: s), but I studied other things at university (economics, politics, social sciences philosophy). Life is more than computer you know… I worked with FInance/IT then started a web startup and got to know Alex Mizrahi who worked as a developer….
Web startup didn’t fly, but Alex showed me bitcoin. When I finally read the whitepaper I was blown away, and joined Alex colored-coins project, the first open source protocol to issue tokens. in 2013.
So, we started with open-source tokens (that kickstarted the blockchain industry. Then started company together 2014.
That is a long intro, I’ll shut up now… Thanks….
Serge,
I’m Serge, I’m assisting Henrik today and I work with Chromia marketing team as well as on some business development projects
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, , Question No 1 :
Kindly describe the CHROMIA project and what it aims to achieve?
Henrik Hjelte,
Chromia is a new public blockchain based on the idea of integrating traditional databases, Relational databases with blockchain security. Chromia is a general purpose blockchain with full smart contract capabilities, just that it is a lot easier to code, even complex applications. You code with an easy to learn new programming language that combines the power of SQL and normal languages but makes it secure in a blockchain context. Up to 1/10 the code-lines vs other blockchains. There is a blog post about it, I’ll share later. On lines of code.
The aim of Chromia is to combine relational databases, which exist in every kind of organization, together using blockchains. We want to provide a platform for our users to develop totally decentralized apps securely. Our goal is for Chromia to be seen as the number one infrastructure for decentralized applications.
https://blog.chromia.com/reasons-for-rell-compactness/
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,Question No 2:
What inspired the CHROMIA Core team to pick interest in CHROMIA project? what breakthrough have you achieved so far? what are the present challenges you’re facing and how are you planning to overcome them?
Henrik Hjelte,
We started with public blockchains, tokens in 2012, the world’s first stable coin with a bank 2015 (LHV). When coding that solution, peer to peer payments of Euro-tokens, we discovered we need performance reasons to store all data in a database. We needed to quickly know the “balance” of a user, and can’t loop through a blockchain. And slowly the idea grew that we can make the database INTO a blockchain, integrate completely with the transaction mechanism of a database. So, we did it as a private blockchain first (Postchain), used it for some projects, then came up with the idea to make a Public Blockchain based on it.
The motivation is that we felt we needed a better programming model for blockchains. Our CTO Alex has always been thinking of optimal solutions for blockchain technology and has lots of experiences thinking about it. Also: make real-world useful things. For example, we support free-to-play models since users do not need to own “our” token to USE apps, the application itself (often the developer) pays for hosting. And of course, great performance. Also: more knowledge of who runs nodes and risk level. So, it is more suitable for enterprises.
In Chromia the application (at the start the developer) decides Who should be allowed to run its own blockchain (every dapp has its own blockchain). You can also say on a higher level that we want to provide technology to create “Public applications”, a tool
that enables us to create a fairer world.
https://blog.chromia.com/towards-publicly-hosted-applications/
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 3 :
Why did you create your own blockchain instead of leveraging on existing and proven base layer protocol?
Henrik Hjelte,
None of the existing protocols are suitable to support large-scale, mainstream applications. We designed Chromia to give our users exactly what they want; fast support, useful features, with an affordable service cost. Other platforms do not have the ability to host data applications in a decentralized and secure way, as Chromia can. Chromia also has its own bespoke programming language that sets it apart from SQL-based platforms. It’s so easy to use, even non-developers can understand it!
The other big difference with Chromia concerns payments. Chromia gives its users freedom from having to pay for each transaction. With Chromia, you have the flexibility to decide how to set fees for your dapp
And when it comes to “proven base layer protocols”: they are just a few years at max. Chromia is built on top of Postgresql, that has been used in enterprises for decades, a really proven technology. And the Java virtual machine on top of that. This is proven tech, at core.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 4 :
What is Postchain?
Henrik Hjelte,
Postchain is an open-source product of ChromaWay for enterprise clients and it’s the core technology on which Chromia is built.
Postchain is a replicated blockchain and database that offers highly resilient distributed database management with distributed control.
Postchain is the only product on the market that combines the immutable consensus of a blockchain and the properties of a real database management system (You know, the tech that built SAP, Facebook, Banks…) …
Postchain allows you to share information between companies and/or individuals in a secure and transparent way.
That is the low-level base of Chromia you can say
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Can you please name some of your clients that are using this service already?
Serge,
You mean products built on Postchain? Also, Stockholm Green Digital Finance, Green Assets Wallet that’s now functioning on Chromia Bootstrap Mainnet.
Big financial institutions
It’s only a beginning of course, but very promising one. https://greenassetswallet.org/news/2019/12/12/launch-of-the-green-assets-wallet
Henrik Hjelte,
We got a lot of attention with the Swedish Land registry; we did a joint project between them and banks and a telco etc on postchain as base.
Then, right now we do a large project with the Inter-American Development bank also about land-registration (processes) in South America.
We had a client, Stockholm Green Digital Finance, that did a system for green bonds (tracking environmental impact. Yes, as Sege says, it was later moved to Chromia…
Which is cool. Also, another external development company did that phase of the project, proving that other can build on our tech,4irelabs from Ukraine is their name. Some companies using the GAW: Blackrock. SEB Bank etc…
Also, we have done more projects, in Australia, asia etc. Oh Daimler too (the Mercedes company) …
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Lots of enterprise clients you’ve got. No wonder I do see the meme “CHR=ETH KILLER”
Serge,
It’s a meme from our supporters. But we believe we can coexist:)
For some niche things eth is good :)
So, no killing :D
Henrik Hjelte,
We want to work with partners too for this, we can’t do all projects ourselves. Also, for Chromia projects, ChromaWay company can help do support maintenance etc. So, it is not competing, it adds value to the ecosystem.
Yeah ETH is good too, for some applications. We are friends with them from colored-coin times.
And colored-coins inspired ETH, and ETH inspires us.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 5 :
Lastly, CHROMIA is already doing very well in terms of business. You just got listed on BINANCE JEX, you are on-boarding new clients and dishing out new features. But what’s next? Is there anything to be excited about?
Henrik Hjelte,
Plans for 2020 are to both release a series of dapps to showcase how fantastic Chromia is, as well as continue to develop the platform. And when it is secure and good enough, we will release the mainnet.
Dapps are now being made by us as well as others. We do a decentralized social network framework called Chromunity, now released to TestNet. It is really cool, users can vote over moderators, and in the future users might even govern the complete application, how it can be updated. This is a great showcase for Chromia and why we use the slogan Power to the Public.
https://testnet.chromunity.com/
Games coming are:
Mines of Dalarnia (by Workinman Interactive). An action game in a mine with blockchain rental of plots and stuff. Already on TestNet and you can take a peek on it at https://www.minesofdalarnia.com
more coming…
Krystopia 2, novas journey. A puzzle game done by Antler Interactive. Could only find trailer though: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G95-Dw3kI4
However, we have even larger ambitions with blockchain gaming…
We are doing A secret demo-project that we do together with Antler to showcase the technical potential of Chromia platform.
Another exciting relase is an indie game Chain of Alliance, done by two external developers. It is a strategy game with full-logic on blockchain. Public release on TestNet on May 22!
More coming in 2020: Other dapps from other companies, one in impact-tech.
That is a serious app, Chromia also works outside gaming and social media for enterprises and startups
And I hope some of you will do something, we want to support dapps on the platform so reach out to us…
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
When can we be expecting the mainnet? Any approximate time? I’m sure the community will really excited to have that info
Serge,
It’s now in Bootstap phase, so it’s technically already functioning. MVP will be very soon
Stay tuned;)
Twitter questions Vs answers
Ellkayy,
What’s the unique thing in Chromia that no other blockchain has, that makes you the better option?
Henrik Hjelte,
Unique: Chromia is the only blockchain that also has a real, proper database built-in. And blockchain is about managing data in a shared context. How to best managed data was solved in computer science already. So far, it is the relational algebra model that is used in 100% of all enterprises, and has an 85% market share. Chromia is the only blockchain that use that model and that power.
Ellkayy,
Why Chromia use RELL and not SQL or JavaScript? Can developers with other language knowledge use Chromia?
Serge,
Rell is the only language on the blockchain side. You can combine with anything on client-side, although now client only exists for JS/TS, C# and Java/Kotlin. Rell is a language for relational blockchain programming. It combines the following features:
1 Relational data modeling and queries similar to SQL. People familiar with SQL should feel at home once they learn the new syntax.
2 Normal programming constructs: variables, loops, functions, collections, etc.
3 Constructs which specifically target application backends and, in particular, blockchain-style programming including request routing, authorization, etc.
Rell aims to make programming as convenient and simple as possible. It minimizes boilerplate and repetition. At the same time, as a static type system it can detect and prevent many kinds of defects prior to run-time.
Roshan DV,
I have been monitoring your project for a while but some concerns about it: Your project will build your own core network, so you have more visibility than Ethereum and NEO. These are projects that were born before and which also have a very large community. And what can assure you that your project will guarantee the functionalities that you have defined?
Henrik Hjelte,
What came first? I want to remind that Vitalik was in the colored-coins project, led by our CTO and we had blockchain in production before ETH and NEO etc existed. We are the old dogs…
Large community: We are part of the same community. When developers are fustrated and want to try new tech, they go to us from other blockchains.
Also, we have a large potential: SQL (close to Rell and our tech) is the world top 3 language. Bigger than Java. Bigger than PHP. Only beaten bny HTML and javascript. Soliditiy is not on top 20 list. THere are millions of developers that know SQL. That is potential for community… (source is Stackoverflow annual programming survey).
Paul (Via Manage),
What are the utilities of Chromia and what purpose does the Chromia coin serve?
Serge,
Chromia meta-token called Chroma (CHR). It is used in Chromia to compensate block-producing nodes by fees. In Chromia, fees are paid by dapps, which can in their turn collect fees from users. Chromia provides mechanisms which balance the interests of developers and users. Dapp tokens can be automatically backed with Chroma, providing liquidity and value which is independent of investment into the dapp. Dapp investors can be compensated in Chroma through a profit-sharing contract. For developers, Chromia offers the opportunity to derive income from dapps. This incentivises the creation and maintenance of high quality dapps because better dapps generate more income and create more demand for tokens owned by the developer. The Chromia model is designed to support sustainable circular economies and foster a mutually beneficial relationship between developers, users, and investors.
Idemudia Isaac,
Thank you very much u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
You stated your plans for 2020 is to release series of dApps. What kind of large scale, mainstream decentralized application and $Chromia products do you think is suitable for the Nigerian environment?
Henrik Hjelte,
Actually, this is why we want to work with partners. We cannot know everything, For African market we have seen of course payments/remittances (but it has fallen out of trend). We would love to do real-estate /land-registration but we understand we need a strong local partner (more than a single person, a real company or organization driving).
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
What plans do you have to building a vibrant global community around Rell? And how would you go about encouraging/incentivising such ‘Rellists’ around the world to build dApps on Chromia? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Henrik Hjelte,
For developers (I am one too, or used to be) you normally need to prove a few things:
\ That the tech is productive (can I do apps faster?)*
\ That it is better (less bugs, more maintainable?)*
Then the community will come. We see that all the time. Look at web development. React.js came, and developers flooded to it. Not because of marketing on Superbowl, but because it was BETTER. Fewer bugs and easier to do complex webapps.
So, at core: people will come when we showcase the productivity gains, and that is what we need to focus on.
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
Why do you choose to build Chromia token on ERC20 instead of other blockchain such as BEP2, TRC20…or your own chain while ERC20 platform is very slow and have a case of fee? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Serge,
So far Ethereum has the best infrastructure, it’s the oldest and most reliable network for tokens. It also became the industry standard which exchanges utilize. We will transfer 80% of all erc20 tokens to our Chromia blockchain when it’s ready for that.
Koh,
In your whitepaper it says in the upcoming version of ChromiaWallet that it will be able to function as a Dapp browser for public use. Q) Will it be similar to the Dapp browser on Trust Wallet?
Serge,
It’s live already try it http://vault-testnet.chromia.com/
It’s the wallet and a dapp browser
CHROMIA is SOLID,
Your metamorphosis is a laudable one,surviving different FUD, how have you been able to survive this longest bear market and continue building and developing cos many projects have died out in this time period!
Henrik Hjelte,
You need to know we started a company before ETH existed. There was 0 money in blockchain when we started. I did it becuase it was fun, exciting tech and MAYBE someone would be interested in the thing we made “Tokens”…
We were never in the crazy bull-market, manly observed the crazies from the side. We fundraised for CHR in a dip (they called it bear market). ChromaWay the company also make money from enterprises.
Алекс,
What is SSO?
What makes it important for chromias ecosystem?
Why should we users be attracted to it?’
Serge,
Chromia SSO is perhaps the most important UX improvement that Chromia offers the decentralized world. It revolutionizes the way users interact with dapps. Any dapp requires users to sign transactions, that means they need a private key. Control of the private key is control of any and all dapps or assets associated with it. This means that private keys have an especially stringent set of security requirements in a blockchain context — they control real value, and there is no recourse if they are compromised or lost. https://blog.chromia.com/chromia-sso-the-whys-and-the-whats/
Olufemi Joel,
How do you see the Chromia project developing in 3 to 5 years, both on the commercial level and on the evolution of the company? What are the plans for expansion in different regions? Are you going to outsource the team/skills or keep it centralized and set up offices?
Henrik Hjelte,
I take part of the question. On outsource: we were a distributed team from day one, with co-founders from 3 countries (still living there). We are distributed now, Ukraine, Sweden, Vietnam, Croatia, China are “hubs” then we have individuals too. No big plan, just where we found great developers…
Park Lee, u/henrik_hjelte
You claim CHOROMIA have fast support, useful features with an affordable service cost. That fast and the fees are cheap but can you guarantee stability?
What’s the Algorithms which are used by CHROMIA for that fast? And Can you explain it?
Serge,
We use PBFT protocol with some features of DPOS, this plus sidechains parallelism offers almost unlimited speed and scalability. We also use the feature called anchoring to secure all transactions in batches on Bitcoin blockchain.
Mario Boy,
What are you guys trying to achieve as an end goal? The next Ethereum? Or the next enterprise version of Ethereum? Or something different?
Henrik Hjelte,
The end goal… good question. When we started in 2014 there were no other blockchain companies, so we wanted to do the best blockchain technology in order to enable a decentralized world with more fair applications. And that is what we still do. Technology/software that can enable people to make a fairer world
Erven James Sato,
“STAKING” is one of the STRATEGIES to ATTRACT USERS and ACHIEVE MASS ADOPTION
Does your GREAT PROJECT have plan about Staking?
Serge,
Yes, we announced our staking plans couple of months ago https://blog.chromia.com/on-providers-and-stakes/
We are working with our current partners to make it accessible for general public.
Chizoba,
I often see Chromia and ChromaWay being used interchangeably, what is the relationship between the two?
Henrik Hjelte,
ChromaWay the company started Chromia from code done as postchain. This is normal in open-source development, a company that leads development. But Chromia will be a decentalized network, so ChromaWay will not make direct money out of it more than if we have a role as a Provider (and get payed for hosting). ChromaWay can indirectly make money from optional support and maintenance etc. Also, this, perfectly normal in open-source world.
And it also benefits Chromia that there is a market for support.
A market open for competition.
No special treatment for “ChromaWay”
Enajite,
How to start coding on Chromia?
Henrik Hjelte,
Go to https://rell.chromia.com and follow the tutorial. Enjoy the free time you get compared to other blockchain languages…
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
Chromia process 500 TPS, these is slow compare to other Blockchains, where we can see now 60K TPS if more capacity require, how can that be? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Serge,
Yes, if you need faster speed you can use parallelism by having multiple blockchains for your dapp. Also, by optimization and better architecture sky is the limit.
Delphino.eth ⟠,
Can we consider Chromia an hybrid? For its mixing of Blockchain and a Database?
Henrik Hjelte,
Yes and no. I want to stress that Chromia is a FULL blockchain. It is not only “inspired”. It is a blockchain AND a database.
I tend to think about Hybrid more in the usecases that you might have as a customer. For example, a bank might want to have some data/transactions private (as a private blockchain) and have another half of the application with public data (on Chromia). So that is a hybrid solution, and Chromia ROCKS in that segment since it is the only blockchain that is complete relational database (what the normal world uses anyway for 85% of all applications)
Example area: “open banking”
Steve bush,
How will Chromia I have any empower Investors, Companies, Developers, Platform Users to
deliver impactful solutions and bring value to people all over the world?
Henrik Hjelte,
In order to make blockchain go big, we need to have users. Users need to be able to use apps with ease. Chromia have features like single-sign on (ease of use), but importantly do not require owning tokens to USE apps.
Also, it needs to be easy to make applications. For example, if you are a student in US and came up with an idea, you want to make an application for your school. Let’s call it “thefacebook”. You code something in PHP and MySQL. DID YOU SEE THAT. SQL. SQL.SQL. It is the same tech that Chromia has but no one else in the blockchain business. SQL rules the world if you look outside the crypto bubble. Google the Oracle head-office… 100% of all enterprises use it… Because it is easy and powerful.
And we even improve on SQL with Rell….
So, compare that with a hacky virtual machine that have a few years…. 😊
August,
“Mines of Dalarnia” is a game that has caught my attention a lot, due to its simplicity and quality. But in the time that I have used it I have not been able to differentiate between the Chromia blockchain of this game and that of the competition? What other games do you have next to develop? I would like to give ideas in those games like a Gamers!
Henrik Hjelte,
We thought about in corona time sports club might want to engage more with their fans digitally. And of course, E-Sports is getting a real momentum as the young generation grows up. Now a bit sad that all games are centralized. My daughter will be sad when (at some day?) they will close down roblox… it happens to all centralized apps eventually… that is what we fix. Power to the Public to control apps and their future. I’ll repost again Alex post. Sorry I like it a lot… https://blog.chromia.com/towards-publicly-hosted-applications/
Bisolar,
Good day Chromia team from a Chromia fan
Can you tell us Chromia’s geographical focus at the moment and the proces it follows for it BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT?
What factors do you consider before identifying NEW MARKETS to enter?
Serge,
Chromia will initially focus on community building in China, Korea, US and Europe. The focus of community growth will gradually expand to other markets as the project gains popularity.
Current community growth strategies of Chromia include:
Chromia blockchain incubator creation to welcome more projects to the Chromia blockchain
Host blockchain gaming conferences, workshops, and meetups to engage with potential users.
Provide online and face-to-face tutorials to engage with dapps developers.
Attract blockchain developers through direct and indirect approach via specialized platforms and communities.
Develop our relations with existing and previous corporate clients, and their partnership networks to participate in their blockchain ventures
Launch Node program to encourage system providers to run nodes on the Chromia blockchain.
Staking program for Chroma (CHR) tokens
Active community engagement via social channels.
Future community growth strategies of Chromia after Mainnet launch include:
Partner with more gaming studios, startups and enterprises
Build local communities with Ambassador Programs.
Partner with external incubator and accelerators to provide blockchain expertise and introduce projects to Chromia ecosystem
Continue organizing hackathons around the world to attract more developers.
Emmanuel,
I want to know the current structure of your roadmap? What is the future roadmap of CHROMIA? Is there any key milestone coming???
Henrik Hjelte,
It is easy to do a roadmap; anyone can make a pape plan. But I think they are used in the wrong way. Software is hard, blockchain is even harder because it NEEDS TO BE SECURE. No MVP releases. We cannot even have roadmap deadlines and skimp on quality. Where we are now though is: Rell language finished so much that developers can write apps and see its magic. We have external devs doing dapps. We have the first phase of mainnet. We have a series of releases coming up. We will release mainnet when it is secure enough, and gradual roll out. I think quite soon, development is going great at the moment, a bit quicker than we though.
Ellkayy,
Why doesn’t Chromia transactions use gas? How do you power transactions then?
Serge,
Main feature of gas in Ethereum is to pay for transactions for miners get rewards. In our scenario Providers get rewards from dapp owners. So dapp owner pays for storing their dapp. It’s like Amazon Web Service model. Then dapp owner can monetize it in its own way.
Ellkayy,
Many developers don’t know RELL, just Solidity and SQL. Is this a barrier or threat to Chromia? Why RELL is better?
Henrik Hjelte,
Very few developers know Solidity. Do a search on github. I referred previously to stackoverflow programming language survey results. https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2019#technology
If you know SQL, you learn Rell in a day.
SQL is the top 3 language here. I’d say there are millions that can easily jump to Rell.
Soldity or other blockchains, not on top 20 list even.
Rell is a hipper, nicer version of SQL that is also a “normal” programming language.
Developers like to learn new things, new languages. Otherwise we would be stuck with PHP, the DOMINANT language. Well, is it still? Seems javascript and react.js and node etc is taking over…
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
This brings us to the end of the AMA. It’s been a pleasure being with all of you, THANK YOU. Special shout out to u/sergelubkin and u/henrik_hjelte for honouring us with their presence today❤️
Kindly follow CHROMIA on twitter and join the conversation with their community on Telegram
Twitter: https://twitter.com/Chromia
Telegram: https://t.me/hellochromia
Official Chromia Nigeria Community Channel 🇳🇬 : https://t.me/ChromiaNigeria
Website: www.chromia.com
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Parallels between two disruptive technologies: Internet & Blockchain – Part II

Parallels between two disruptive technologies: Internet & Blockchain – Part II
In part two of this blog, we will explore the parallels between the technologies in capitals and start-ups, in the decentralization of the blockchain as the main aspect that will revolutionize the Internet and in education. To read up on the first blog post, please follow this link.
Initial Start-Ups and Capitals
For more than 20 years the Internet was narrowed down to the usage of a few tech-savvy that knew how to navigate it. It’s only in 1993-94 that it became mainstream when Marc Andreessen created the Mosaic) browser while studying at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and brought the Internet to the general public allowing them to navigate the web comfortably with a positive user-friendly experience.
For the first time, users could establish an active presence over the internet by loading their own documents, photos, sounds, video clips, and hypertext “links” to other documents. Navigation of the internet started to have meaning. Later on, Marc Andreessen was on the team that created Netscape, the Internet browser that reached 38 million users in eighteen months and IPO’d in record time, breaking records as far as company growth while becoming the first dot-com company. Silicon Valley and Wall Street jumped on the rapid success of Netscape and started the “Internet Big bang” with a new wave of tech startups trying to follow a similar path.
In the blockchain world, Bitcoin (2008) was the first application of the technology, the most disruptive, and its first wave of users, just like in the first internet era, was also more on the technical savvy side. Despite the significant injection of capital into the blockchain space, we have not had yet a killer app or project that could compare to Mosaic or Netscape.
If blockchain is a synonym of decentralization, so far the unicorns in the space are centralized companies with traditional business models like Coinbase, Binance which are centralized exchanges, and Bitmain, a privately owned company headquartered in Beijing, China that specializes in the design of application-specific integrated circuit chips for bitcoin mining. This is why we still believe to be in the early stages of blockchain technological cycle similar to 1994 during the Internet Revolution, expecting more market cycles to happen in the upcoming years.
A look at the market capitalization of the two technologies highlights a notable difference: according to CBInsights, in the 1990s venture capitals injected in Internet startups were around $35.6 billion while so far we’ve seen no more than $6 billion flowing into the blockchain space. The good news is that the trend is moving up and the potential is to reach $10 trillion between Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies combined.
https://preview.redd.it/3oonw2fopka41.jpg?width=5472&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=167f366b4ee2eaf47fdf89e418ee498eb8e8a958
Some Venture Capitals, like Node Capital, smelled early the potential of the tech and made their first investments in the industry in 2011. In 2018, there were more than 200 venture investments in blockchain and cryptocurrency companies, more than in all of 2011-2015 combined.
Digital Currency Group is one of the major investors in the space and has been extremely influential in blockchain since 2013. They started off with an investment of less than a million US dollars, in crypto payment processor BitPay. Since then they have invested close to $100 million in dozens of blockchain and cryptocurrency startups including Coinbase and Ripple.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
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WHAT IS CARDANO CRYPTOCURRENCY (ADA) AND BLOCKCHAIN 3.0

WHAT IS CARDANO CRYPTOCURRENCY (ADA) AND BLOCKCHAIN 3.0
Cryptocurrency Cardano (ADA) and blockchain 3.0, detailed information about the project. Imagine what it would be like if you had a blockchain:
  • Scalable
  • Safe
  • Driven
Isn't it like a dream? Well, the dream is about to come true with the third generation of blockchains, the first generation is Bitcoin, and the second generation is Ethereum.
But when you combine the positive characteristics of the first two with some additional unprecedented features, you get third-generation blockchains like Cardano.

https://preview.redd.it/jeykr4bhgnu31.png?width=887&format=png&auto=webp&s=b29a5a90a84c2d3948ea41c01a488a3add7a5248

1. What is a cardan?

Cardano is a 3rd generation open source blockchain platform that is expected to provide unprecedented support for dapps smart contracts and applications.
But we have Ethereum for that, don't we?
Well, Ethereum is not that good and has faced network congestion more than once. So we need something better designed from the ground up. Cardano is one of them.
You may think of Cardano as Ethereum, but inside it is a robust, research-based approach that lays the groundwork for what should be achieved and how effective.
And just like Ethereum, Cardano has its own cryptocurrency called Cardano (ADA), which serves as fuel for the Cardano network.
Cardano is more than just a cryptocurrency. It is a technology platform that is capable of running financial applications that are used daily by individuals, organizations and governments around the world. The platform is built in modules, which provides flexibility in system maintenance and allows for upgrades using soft branches. Once the settlement layer at which Ada will operate is completed, a separate computing layer will be created to handle smart contracts, digital legal agreements that will underpin future trade and business. Cardano will also run decentralized applications or DApps, services not controlled by any one party but running on the blockchain.

2. How does Cardano cryptocurrency work?

Cardano has deliberately made it modular, so future updates and iterations can be easy.
Cardano consists of two parts: the computational level and the computational level. The settlement level is for calculating cryptocurrency transactions (ADO transactions) and the calculation level is for calculating smart contracts and DApps code.
For this reason, the team can change the agreed Protocol at the calculation level at any time without breaking the calculation level and Vice versa.
The unique thing about Cardano is its long-term plans.
Charles Hoskinson, CEO of Cardano, says they want to create something like a TCP / IP Protocol that can last for decades and eventually make the economy for 3 billion disadvantaged people comprehensive. That's why there's so much focus on research and peer review.

https://preview.redd.it/ug51houkhnu31.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=7150c6f81dfa5fd978bc65f88bd4837888a9d95b
In fact, Charles says they chose their consensus Protocol, the so-called Ouroboros, very carefully.
Through Ouroboros, the time in Cardano is divided into eras, which are further divided into slots, which are short time periods of about 20 seconds, and each slot has a designated leader. Slot leaders can create no more than one block in their assigned slot and are therefore rewarded with transaction fees collected in the era.
But this slot leader is determined according to your Commission in the system. So if there are more ADA transactions in the system, the chances of you becoming a slot leader will be higher.
Thus, Cardano provides security as well as proof of work Bitcoin, but cheaper and more efficient. This method also makes Cardano much faster when you don't have to wait 10 or more minutes for a transaction to complete.
Cardano is developing more scalability capabilities, and we'll talk about that later in this article.

3. Cryptocurrency Cardano and its team


https://preview.redd.it/neptexx0inu31.png?width=745&format=png&auto=webp&s=3ab8ef2628a96d0c724c597c9161df7c49ce0fbe
Cardano's team is also very decentralized and distributed, as it consists of inspirational minds from three different organizations, namely:

  1. Cardano Foundation: an independent standards body based in Switzerland with primary responsibilities to support the Cardano user community and work with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters.
  2. IOHK [Input Output HongKong]: IOHK is a blockchain technology company created by Charles Hoskinson in 2015 specifically to promote peer-to-peer innovation to provide financial services to the 3 billion people around the world who do not have them. IOHK has a contract to develop Cardano until 2020, and some of its other clients are Finance and Ethereum classic.
  3. Emurg: invests in startups and helps businesses build the Cardano blockchain.

4.Cardano offer and market capitalization (ADA)

Cardano has been on the market since September 2017.
The total fixed ADA offer is 45,000,000,000 ADA, of which 25,927,070,538 ADA are on the market.

https://preview.redd.it/htz6rg7ejnu31.png?width=824&format=png&auto=webp&s=08ad71a1c2e6b0e776fcd0249c4130716c6134a3

5. How to buy Cardano cryptocurrency (ADA)

The Cardano project is steadily gaining popularity, and therefore the number of exchanges trading Cardano cryptocurrency is also growing. Here are some of the exchanges through which you can buy/sell cryptocurrency Cardano:

  1. Binance: supported pairs: ADA / BT, ADA / ETO, DA / BOMB, DA / SDT
  2. Huobi: Supported pairs: ADA / BTC, ADA / ETO, DA / SDT
  3. Gate.io: supported pairs: ADA / BTC, ADA / USDT
  4. Bitrix: supported pairs: ADA / BT, ADA / ETO, DA / SDT
  5. ABC: supported pairs: ADA / ETO, DA / USDT
  6. Bithumb: supported Ada / KRW pairs

https://preview.redd.it/p09wuaqhknu31.png?width=1580&format=png&auto=webp&s=0412a4df570c9089b18f7d8997185b0498b9f536

6. Cardano (ADA) wallets

Cardano is not an ERC 20 token. Instead, it has its own dedicated blockchain from the beginning and therefore has a completely different wallet designed by the Cardano team.

The only viable and popular wallet for Cardano right now is the Daedalus wallet, which is the main client for storing, sending and receiving Cardano.
The most popular Cardano wallets:

  1. Desktop wallet: Daedalus Wallet (Windows & Mac)
  2. Mobile wallet: Infinito Wallet (Android app | iOS app)
  3. Hardware wallet: very soon you should expect Ledger Nano to support Cardano as it is under development.

7. Cardano's future and roadmap

Cardano is focused on solving 4 critical problems faced by the blockchain world today, all in one place:

  1. Scalability
  2. Interoperability
  3. Stability
  4. Management
You see how carefully Cardano's team is moving forward. But some might argue that it happens at a snail's pace. Given the fact that they follow the process of initial research and peer review, this speed is expected.
Also, when you're focused on building a Protocol that can last decades, you need very careful planning.
On the other hand, Cardano is written in Haskell, and there are very few developers around the world, and this is also one of the reasons for its slow development.
But even when it is completed, smart contract and Apps development will require knowledge of the Plutus programming language. This can be a huge learning curve, and also to prevent the adoption of Cardano. It's too early to make a decision, as Cardano will need another year or more to fully develop it, and such things will only become clearer once development is complete.

Source
submitted by AVAY11 to u/AVAY11 [link] [comments]

Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)

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We are more than proud that we not only promote but also share our knowledge with the students of the UBAI. Here you can learn how to do security token offering and initial coin offering!
Now I want to share some cool info on the purpose and role of tokens within the Blockchain ecosystem at the ICO stage.
Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) History
Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) are a means of fundraising for the initial capital needed to get new projects off the ground within the cryptocurrency ecosystem. More often than not, Bitcoin and Ethereum, are used to buy a quantity of project tokens. However, new projects are also being launched on alternative Blockchain platforms such as NEO or WANchain, wherein the “parent” chain’s tokens will be used to fund these ICOs. Pre-launch, ICO tokens are endorsed as functional currency in the project ecosystem. After a project’s ICO, it is available on exchanges, and then the market determines the value of those tokens. The main benefit of using the ICO funding system is that it avoids the prohibitive amount of time and expense incurred by launching a startup in the conventional method, by way of Initial Public Offering (IPO). The lengthy and costly process of ensuring regulatory compliance in different jurisdictions often makes the IPO format unfeasible for small companies. Thus, the ICO method of fundraising is far more attractive as a means of crowd funding for the project. But at the same time, an ICO is certainly riskier for the investor.
It is important to note the different stages of the token sale. Token prices generally escalate the closer the token gets to its listing date. Projects often seek funding from angel investors even before the date of the private pre-sale is set, though some ICOs do go straight to pre-sale. After potential initial investment has been sought from angel investors, pre-sale begins. Usually there will be a 15–30% discount from the public sale price. The main-sale begins after the pre-sale has concluded. At that time, normal everyday crypto enthusiasts, with no connections to the team, may buy into the project at pretty close to the ground floor price. Angel investors and pre-sale investors sometimes receive quite large discounts from main sale prices, but their tokens are locked up for varying amounts of time, to prevent dumping, or selling all their tokens for a quick profit at the time of listing. Today the vast majority of ICOs make use of the Ethereum blockchain and the ERC-20 token. The very first token sale was arranged by Mastercoin, a Bitcoin fork, in July 2013. Ethereum soon followed in early 2014, raising 3700 BTC in only 12 hours (equivalent to $2.3 million at that time, and just under $35 million today). Before late 2015 there were sporadic ICOs, with Augur, NXT and Factom all successfully raising funds. 2016 was the year that the ICO format grew to truly disrupt the Venture Capital industry. There were 64 ICOs in 2016 which cumulatively raised $103 million USD.
Tremendous Success & Why Real World Case Study
The ICON (ICX) Initial coin offering is an example of a project that reaped the rewards of a token sale done with precision of execution and clarity of vision. The project promised to build a world-wide decentralized network that would allow Blockchains of different governances to transact with one another without a centralized authority, and with as few barriers as possible. ICX offered fair and clear tokenomics, with 1 Ether buying 2500 ICX, and with 1 ETH costing approximately 250 dollars when the ICO began on September 18th. 50% of the total amount of tokens were put up for public sale, 400,230,000 out of a total of 800,460,000, equating to a fundraising goal of 150,000 Ether. One of the core reasons for the project’s spectacular success was the incredibly distinguished background of those involved, and the foundation the project had in many years of stellar achievement. ICON was originally a project developed by “The Loop”, a joint venture between DAYLI financial group and three Korean Universities. They lead the Korea Financial Investment Blockchain Consortium, one of the largest organizations of its kind in the world, boasting members including Samsung Securities. The Loop had already implemented Blockchain solutions for high profile clients well before ICX was born, including completing a KYC/AML authentication smart contract platform for Korea Financial Investment Consortium.
Real World Example of Failure & Why Case Study
The risk involved in starting your own company is huge. Over 75% of startups eventually fail, according to the Harvard Business School study by Shikhar Ghosh. The study’s findings show the rate of failure for new companies is roughly 50% after 5 years, and over 75% after 10. Shikhar Ghosh identifies the following issues as the most common factors in start-up failure: -Insufficient Market Demand -Insolvency -Wrong Team -Got beat by competition -Pricing/Cost issues -Poor Product -Need for or Lack of business model -Ineffective Marketing -Disregarding Customer desires The statistics concerning rate of failure for conventional business startups pale in comparison to the number of crypto startups that fail according to Tokendata. They are one of the most rigorous ICO trackers, recording 46% of the 902 ICO crowdsale projects initiated in 2017 as failing by the time of writing. Of these 46%, 142 collapsed before the end of the funding stage, and a further 276 had either “exit scammed” (took the money and ran) or slowly faded into eventual obscurity. With no shortage of failed and abortive projects to look into, we thought it would be more helpful to look into an ICO that was mismanaged and unsuccessful in terms of its execution, rather than being fraudulent, or terminally mismanaged.
Real World Example of Failure & Why §3
Tezos was designed as a “new decentralized Blockchain that governs itself by establishing a true digital commonwealth”. The project was a partnership between the husband and wife team of Kathleen and Arthur Breitman, and a Swiss foundation run by Johann Gevers. They had a novel idea of “formal verification”, a technique that mathematically proves the veracity of code governing transactions and heightens security of smart contracts. That idea was wholeheartedly endorsed by investors, resulting in $232 million USD raised in the 2017 crowdsale. Trouble arose after the Breitmans asked the head of the Swiss foundation they were in partnership with to step down. In Gever’s words, the Breitman’s were attempting “to bypass Swiss legal structure and take over control of the foundation”. The resulting 6 class action lawsuits that were spawned from the wreckage of one of the most successful ICOs of all time have yet to be fully resolved at the time of writing, though Gevers has stepped down and a new leadership team is in place. The Tezos Network has a prospective launch date of somewhere around Q3 2018. The debacle, though not terminal to the prospects of the Tezos network, provides a cautionary tale about the need for a clearly defined leadership structure and plan for the allocation of funds after an ICO. It is entirely possible that the Tezos project could have ridden the late 2017 market euphoria to sit near the top of the cryptocurrency hierarchy if boardroom strife could have been avoided.
Real World Example of Failure & Why §4
Projects often also “pivot” from one focus or project to another. More often than not, teams change the project name entirely, even while retaining the same core team, to try for a successful venture one more time. One such project is Chain Trade Token (CTT) which, while technically speaking, not yet a “deadcoin”, shows all the signs of shutting down operations within a few months, and “pivoting” into a new project. The CTT project aimed to be the “first blockchain-based platform for the trading of futures and options on food and raw materials (aka commodity derivatives)”. But through a combination of a non-existent social media presence, and a distinct lack of urgency in securing listings beyond decentralized exchanges, the lofty ambitions of the top-level team were left unrealized. The team has supposedly split their operations from solely Chain Trade, to a former business endeavors, and the Nebula Decentralized Exchange. The project leaders then offered a 1-for-1 token swap which has been accepted by the vast majority of CTT holders.
The ICO Process
Before even researching the particular strengths and weaknesses of any specific project in which you may want to invest, it is important to know the overall processes of the ICO crowdfunding method. This will allow you to avoid any potential pitfalls if you do decide to move forward and invest money into a particular idea or project. How does an ICO happen? Stage One: Token sale details are set: This takes place usually after release of the whitepaper, and the presentation of a project to prospective investors in forums and on social media. Stage Two: Whitelisting for private sale begins: The vast majority of all ICOs have instituted KYC checks for investors which usually involve uploading a photograph of your passport or driving license along with a selfie holding the ID. Did you know? Participation in ICOs has proven to be a regulatory nightmare in some localities. Most token sales restrict contributions from investors in China and the USA entirely, though accredited investors may participate in the USA in some cases.
Stage Three: Private/Pre-sale states: Typically, 10% of tokens will be offered to early investors at a 10–30% discount. These select few investors will likely have a close association with the team. But not all projects have a pre-sale round, some go straight to public sale. Stage Four: Whitelisting for Public/Main sale starts: The same format used for pre-sale investors is used for public sale investors, though it is a regular occurrence to see main sale KYC checks closed early due to overwhelming demand. An investor must then register a contribution wallet address. That is the address used to send cryptocurrency from, to buy the ICO tokens, and then also into which you will receive your purchased tokens. This wallet address must be a non-exchange wallet, like Blockchain.info bitcoin wallet, or MyEtherWallet for ERC-20. You already understand from the prior lesson that making a mistake with your wallet address may mean you lose the tokens forever as well as the BTC or ETH you used to purchase them. Copying and pasting your cryptocurrency public key into the whitelist wallet form is the next task to complete. And then, as the investor, you wait for confirmation of successful ICO registration from the team.
Stage Five: Public sale starts: Commonly on a specific date, though sometimes for a specific period of time. If you are interested in participating in an ICO, it is important to make your contribution as quickly as possible, or you risk sending your ETH or BTC after the hard cap has been reached, resulting in your funds being sent back. This refund can sometimes take many days, or even weeks in times of high market activity. Did you know? In 2017 it was not unheard of to find ICOs that had originally scheduled their ICO period for many weeks, but then they met with such high demand that they could close their crowdsale in a matter of hours or even in just a few minutes!
Stage Six: Tokens are allocated to successful participant investor wallets, and trading can begin on some decentralized exchanges like IDEX, or EtherDelta in the case of Ethereum based tokens. Tokens will be sent to and received by the wallet addresses from which the investor contributions were made. Stage Seven: Tokens are listed on mainstream exchanges: The tokens will then be listed on the exchanges with which the teams have negotiated listing, prior to or during the sale. It can cost huge amounts of money to list on large exchanges like Bitfinex Bittrex, Huobi or Binance, so usually smaller projects will not be listed on top 10 exchanges so quickly. As tokens are listed on more and more exchanges, their price usually rises because more and more investors are exposed to opportunities to buy that particular token.
Evaluating a Blockchain Use Case
Evaluating a particular use case for Blockchain technology, and thus how successful an ICO project’s ambitions might be in a particular market, is not a simple endeavor. As demonstrated in the graphic below, Blockchain technology has nearly limitless potential to be applied to a great variety of business areas, but as an ICO investor, you are looking for projects that have the potential to deliver significant long-term success. In the currently saturated ICO environment, some use cases have more potential than others. Ascertaining which use case is likely to have long term success is a key distinction. Also, we must recognize that businesses and corporate entities may be overeager to experiment with this new Blockchain technology, whether or not usage of the technology is actually advisable or profitable for their particular purpose. The main questions to ask when analyzing specific solutions proposed by the project are: What are the problems posed and the solutions offered? Does this particular area of business need a Blockchain solution? That is, is a Blockchain solution in fact superior to the current way this particular business operates? Is the use of Blockchain in this specific instance feasible and applicable? What are competitors doing about Blockchain projects in this same area?
A Blockchain network provides a shared, replicated, secured, immutable and verifiable data ledger. The implication for use case analysis: Shared and replicated: participants have a copy of the ledger and many people can view it or work on it Secured: Secured through cryptography Verifiable: Business rules are associated with all interactions that occur on the network Immutable: Transactions (records) cannot be modified or deleted, therefore a verifiable audit trail is maintained by the network So, with all this considered, what should we look for with regard to a possible business use case that would be best solved using Blockchain technology? 1. Data exchange that has trust issues i.e. businesses transacting with one another. Trust must be established through a multitude of verification processes with regards to employees and products. These processes increase operational cost. Example: Digital voting. 2. Any potential business process involving data storage, or compliance and risk data that get audited. Blockchain solutions would provide the regulators a real-time view of information. Example: Supply chain solutions like VeChain or WaltonChain. The possibility of close to zero operational loss would of course be attractive to any business. 3. All kinds of asset transactions. A Blockchain network, with its tamper-proof ledger, validating traceable and trackable transactions, could save many different industries untold amounts of money. Example: Tokenization of assets e.g. Jibrel Network or Polymath
Purpose of Tokens
Within the cryptocurrency ecosystem, the definition and role of a token iswidely understood. They represent programmable units of currency that sit atop a particular Blockchain, and they are part of a smart contract “logic” specific to a certain application. In the business sphere, a token can be defined as a unit of value that a project or business venture creates to enable it to self-govern. And the business venture also allows token users to connect and collaborate with its business products, while facilitating the sharing of rewards to all of its stakeholders. A token can also be described in a more general sense as a type of privately issued currency. In the past it was solely within the purview of governments to issue currency and set the terms of its governance. With the advent of Blockchain technology we now have businesses and organizations offering forms of digital money over which they, not the government or central bank, have control of the terms of operations and issuance. Wide scale adoption of these mechanisms could fundamentally alter the global economy. This is like the creation of self-sustaining, mini-economies in any sector of business or life, via a specific token or currency.
Fun Fact: Tokens of the particular Blockchain upon which the project is launched will usually have to be bought in order to be exchanged for ICO tokens, hence it is important for traders and investors to be aware of the schedule for upcoming ICOs. ETH is usually the token used for exchange because the majority of ICOs launch on the Ethereum Blockchain. But this is not always the case. During January 2018, two NEO token ICOs, both the Key TKY and Ontology ICOs, were being carried out, and this caused the NEO cryptocurrency to spike to its all-time high in excess of $160 USD. Since the product or project is more often than not in its embryonic stage at the time of the ICO crowdfunding process, the ICO token’s true function and purpose is in most cases yet to be realized. At the ICO stage the tokens can usually be grouped together into one of three categories. Knowing how to distinguish these categories involves determining the specific nature and function of the token around which the project is centered. The main and crucial distinction, is whether or not a token is a security, and therefore subject to securities registration requirements.
ICO Stage Token Categories
Howey Test: This is the test created by the US Supreme Court to ascertain whether certain transactions qualify as “investment contracts”. If they are found to fall within this classification, then under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Exchange Act of 1934, those transactions are considered “securities” and participants must adhere to registration and disclosure requirements. One of the most important and amazing considerations of the effect of Blockchain technology is that normal people with a computer science background are now empowered to make decisions and offer products and services that previously only licensed financial institutions were able to do. This is a very complex and complicated situation with serious ramifications for anyone involved. One thing to note well is that ordinary participants and actors in this arena can easily commit white-collar crime, violating serious securities laws, without even realizing it. If a token falls within the US legal definition of “Investment Contract” then you must adhere to US regulations. For that reason, many ICOs simply do not want to sell to US based investors, perhaps until all the rules and regulations are clarified.
Security Tokens
The broad and varying definition of the term “security” is a regulatory minefield. This has always been true for traditional financial products, and now it is especially true for the as yet unregulated cryptocurrency market. In the case of SEC V. Howey, parameters were established to determine whether or not a particular financial arrangement could be classified as a security and thus be subject to securities regulations. Cooley LLP Fintech Team Leader Marco Santori has said, an arrangement is a security if it involves “an investment of money, and a common enterprise, with the expectation of profit, primarily from the efforts of others.” Investors have the option of accessing a huge range of security tokens through ICOs. Prime examples are the gold backed DigixDao (DGD) and CProp (still in crowd funding stage). A security token is fundamentally different from the currently available ICO project tokens in that it provides a legal and enforceable ownership of a company’s profits and voice in its governance much like common stock traded on any exchange. If security tokens are the next step in the evolution of crypto-finance, real estate, stocks, venture capital, and commodities can all be tokenized. The traditional markets could be fully connected to the Blockchain. Financial assets would available to anyone in the world, not just licensed or accredited investors. That is one aspect of Fintech, the financial revolution taking place today, as Blockchain technology clashes with traditional finance.
Equity Tokens
One exciting application of smart contracts on the Ethereum Network is the potential for startups to distribute equity tokens through initial coin offerings. That would reduce the hurdles that an average person has to face in order to take part in the early stages of a company’s development. And, democratic governance of a project could be conducted in a transparent manner through voting on the Blockchain. As of yet, few startups have attempted to conduct equity token sales for fear of falling afoul of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the US. But many Venture Capital insiders are bullish on the prospect of equity tokens taking a central role in the crypto finance industry, when and as the legal issues are resolved. For example, the Delaware State legislature recently passed a bill enabling companies to maintain shareholder lists on the Blockchain. That is one major step to enable Blockchain based stock trading. Lawyers also generally believe it is only a matter of time before the regulations are clarified. Did you know? Important consideration: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 made it unfeasibly expensive for smaller companies to be listed on exchanges, causing a halving in the number of IPOs between 1996 and 2016 (7322 to 3671). In 2017 there was an almost 5-fold increase in the number of ICOs, from 43 to 210, with the 2017 volume already being eclipsed in the first 5 months of 2018.
Utility Tokens
However, given that this area is still a regulatory nightmare for people planning to issue security and equity tokens, many projects attempt to ensure that the tokens within their specific model fall under the definition of Utility Tokens rather than securities, so as to avoid the SEC regulations altogether. If a token is imbued with a certain functionality and use within the Blockchain infrastructure of that particular project, the token can avoid being labelled as a security, and thus render SEC regulations inapplicable. Just this week in fact, the SEC made the long-awaited and momentous decision that Ether was not a security. In the words of William Hinman, director of the Securities and Exchange Commission division of corporate finance, “Putting aside the fundraising that accompanied the creation of Ether, based on my understanding of the present state of Ether, the Ethereum network and its decentralized structure, current offers and sales of Ether are not securities transactions.” This means that Ethereum, in fact, fails the Howey test, which is exactly the decision the crypto world wanted. Hinman said, “When the efforts of the third party are no longer a key factor for determining the enterprise’s success, material information asymmetries recede,” Hinman said. “The ability to identify an issuer or promoter to make the requisite disclosures becomes difficult, and less meaningful.” We will now cover various use cases that projects have been adopting up to now in order to get their tokens classified as utility tokens rather than securities.
Voting Rights
Some coins portray themselves as a company with tokens being held in a way that is analogous to voting shares of a stock. One coin held is equal to one vote. This form of token utility has a major flaw in that so-called whales (people with huge amounts of a particular cryptocurrency) can manipulate any poll conducted. The cryptocurrencies Aragon and Lykke are examples of projects that have written voting rights into the structure of their code. In-App Reward: Another common tactic to evade the security label has been the addition of in-app rewards to the functionality of a particular token. The Basic Attention Token (BAT) is the unit of currency for use with the project browser named “Brave”. The BAT is a unit of account for the advertisers, publishers and users of the platform. Filecoin, the cloud storage project that raised a record $257 million through their ICO, pays other people or companies for use of their spare storage space. Some of the many rights afforded to token holders in various Blockchain projects are described by the graphic below.
Token Roles Function
The token can be used as a mechanism through which user experience is enhanced, enabling such actions as connection with users, or joining a broader network. It may also be used as an incentive for beginning usage or for on-boarding. Examples include Dfinity and Steemit. Value Exchange: In its most basic usage, a token is a unit of value exchange within a specific app or market. This usually is made up of features that allow users to earn tokens through real work or passive work (sharing data, allowing use of storage space) and to spend them on services or internal functions within the specific market ecosystem created by that organization. Augur and KIK, amongst countless others, are projects that have implemented this functionality into their tokenomics. Toll: The token can also be used for getting onto the Blockchain infrastructure, or for powering decentralized applications run on that particular Blockchain. This ensures that users have “skin in the game”. Tolls can be derived from running smart contracts, paying a security deposit, or just usage fees. Examples include Bitcoin and Ethereum. Currency: Seeing as the particular platform or app is designed with a view towards functioning in synergy with a particular token, the token is an extremely efficient means of payment and transaction engine, resulting in frictionless transactions. This means that companies can become their own payment processors and no longer have to rely on the often unwieldy stages of conventional financial settlement involving trusted third parties in the form of banks and credit card companies.
Rights: Owning a token bequests certain rights upon the holder, such as product usage, voting, access to restricted markets, and dividends (e.g.: GAS for holding NEO). Though most businesses are trying to avoid fitting the definition of a security laid out in the Howey Test, the right to real ownership of a particular asset is sometimes granted as a result of holding a token, for example DigixDAO or Tezos.
Comparison to Traditional IPO and Equity Capital Raisings
Despite the similarity of the acronyms and the derivation of one from the other, Initial Coin Offerings and Initial Public Offerings are very different methods of fundraising. The distinction is not limited simply to the fact that IPOs are used in conventional business, and ICOs are associated with cryptocurrency. Through ICO’s, companies in their early stages issue digital tokens on a Blockchain and those tokens act as units of value for use within the ecosystem created by the project. They have many other uses, but it is also fair to say they are analogous to shares offered in an Initial Public offering.
In an IPO, shareholdings are distributed to investors through underwriters, usually investment banks. But in the case of ICO token sales, companies often do not even have an actual product to show. Often, all that there is a whitepaper, evidence of the partnerships involved and the particular social-media infrastructure they have established. IPO’s take place when a more well-established company floats shares on a stock exchange. The company would have a well-established history of success and significant reasons to expect a bright future. In the vast majority of cases, an ICO is used for a new company with no such history, just trying to get off the ground.
Another important difference is the expected return in exchange for the investment. Companies engaging in IPOs may offer participants dividend paying stocks which result in various levels of return depending on the success of the company after the shares are issued. An ICO however can offer no such guaranteed return. When buying tokens in an ICO, you do so with no promise of return. An investor who holds the tokens of a particular project does so with the promise, rather than an assurance, of future success. The main benefit to investors taking part in Initial Coin Offerings, compared to Initial Public Offerings, is the need for only basic Know Your Customer checks in the case of the ICO, compared to the costly, complex and time-consuming regulatory obstacles that must be traversed in an IPO. In the case of Initial Public Offerings, a business must obtain authorization from a number of entities before the act of “going public”. Prior to an IPO, companies are not obliged to disclose so much of their internal records or accounting. It is not so complicated to make a private company in the United States. But in the run up to going public, the company must form a board of directors, make their records auditable to the relevant authorities in one or more jurisdictions, and prepare to make quarterly reports to the SEC (or equivalent).
Relevant Factors to Consider in ICO process
When analyzing the chances of success for a specific project, and the likelihood of a favorable return on investment in the long term, it is essential to break down the project into its constituent parts, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each part individually. An effective investigation and analysis would start with the team and white paper. Consider the stage the project is at,and VC investments in the project. That would lead to a good initial idea of the actual progress thus far. Next, evaluate the social media presence and the credentials of the community that has formed around the core team. If a compelling case is made by the team, (e.g.: via an in-depth dive into the use case), and the tokenomics, distribution schedule, potential competitors, as well as the team’s awareness of any future business or regulatory concerns all check out; then the ICO might present a good opportunity for investment. In the following slides we tackle each of these considerations in order so you will be able to evaluate an ICO’s worth and assign a grade for the success of each project.
Relevant Factors to Consider in ICO process
The Team First and most important, we need evaluate the background and experience of the team, the people involved in the project. Well-established developers, for example, will likely have LinkedIn profiles demonstrating their previous endeavors and occupations, from which we can judge their suitability to the project and the likelihood of the team’s success. The LinkedIn profile is a point of reference for professional accomplishments and official positions. But we can also learn more about a person from their personal accounts on Twitter, Facebook, and Medium etc. That is also a good way to follow along with the progress of the project. By investigating team members through as many means as possible, you will know how long they have been involved in cryptocurrency. If they have been around and active for a long time, they are that much more likely to be knowledgeable and capable of making better quality decisions in this business. It goes without saying that it is a huge red flag if it is too difficult to find information about the team members online, and worse still if the team members are anonymous.
Relevant Factors to Consider in ICO process
A good Whitepaper gives a detailed description of the project, the problems the team is going to solve, the timeframe projected, and methods to be used in the implementation of their ideas. If, in answering the question about what the project actually does, it seems the team is presenting ideas that are too complicated or advanced to understand, then you simply should not invest until you are satisfied you have been given the requisite level of insight to understand the concepts described. It is always possible that the whitepaper is nothing more than a salad of buzzwords and technical language intended to give the impression of competence while really doing nothing but obfuscate the truth. The whitepaper should clearly and concisely present the problems and the solutions needed. The whitepaper must give a solid and coherent answer as to who needs this project and why. Also, if the team have put no effort into explaining why a Blockchain solution is needed for this particular problem, or why such a solution is superior to its “real-world” equivalent, it is likely they are only in it for the money. We have more to say about red-flags later.
While 2016 raised a comparatively small amount in comparison to the proceeding years, there were a few specific projects that raised significant amounts of capital. These are respectable amounts of money, even by today’s standards, and especially impressive when contrasted with the immaturity of the ICO market at the time, and relative to amounts raised in traditional IPOs. Waves ($16.4mill), Iconomi ($10.6mill) and Golem ($8.6mill) were the three largest fundraisings of the year. 2017 was the year of the ICO whales. Hdac ($258mill), Filecoin ($257mill), EOS Stage 1 ($185mill) and Paragon ($183.16mill) were the largest that year. To be able to raise so much money, so quickly, in such a new market, using such a new mechanism is truly incredible. 2017 was the year that proved ICOs are for serious individuals and institutional investors as well. We have also had some phenomenal amounts raised so far in 2018. Telegram ($1.7bill), Dragon ($320mill), Huobi ($300mill) and Bankera ($150mill). Telegram might be the first mainstream example of an ICO, not only by raising close to $2billion, which would be beyond incredible and impressive even by traditional IPO standards; but also, because it is one of the first ICO companies to tangibly put a product in the hands of hundreds of millions of users, and successfully compete against traditional companies such as Facebook (MessengeWhatsApp), Microsoft (Skype) and Tencent (WeChat).
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InvestInBlockchain - Cryptocurrencies in the Top 100 With Working Products

Bitcoin (BTC)

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Bitcoin is the cryptocurrency that started it all back in 2009, after the global financial crisis and subsequent bailouts of banks left many people disenfranchised with fiat currency and outdated, insecure financial infrastructure.
Today, Bitcoin is being used for peer-to-peer payments across the globe. More than that, though, it is leading the way towards a future in which financial technology is trustless, secure, resilient, and censorship resistant. Without Bitcoin, this list would not exist.

Ethereum (ETH)

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The platform that brought smart contracts to the blockchain, spurring a minor revolution in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Before Ethereum, Bitcoin and its transaction-oriented design was the central focus of most blockchain projects.
After Ethereum, teams saw the value of decentralized apps (dapps) and smart contracts, and shifted their focus to compensate.
Vitalik Buterin’s Ethereum whitepaper was released in late 2013. The project itself was announced January 2014, with a crowdsale the following July. The system officially went live in July 2015.
Since then, hundreds of businesses, individuals, and blockchain projects have adopted Ethereum as their main smart contracts platform.

Ripple (XRP)

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Ripple is focused primarily on one thing: fast and cheap international transactions.
Current banking infrastructure has failed to evolve in the 21st century, such that it still takes 3-5 business days on average for an international transfer to be processed. With just 4 second transaction times and at a fraction of the cost of a wire transfer, Ripple’s working product is already impacting the banking sector.
The big knock against Ripple is that its native token, XRP, is completely unnecessary. Indeed, driving adoption of Ripple’s banking solutions is far easier than getting real-world adoption for XRP.
If you’re interested in seeing a discussion about how XRP adoption will occur, you might find this reddit thread worth a read. Meanwhile, all of us will just have to wait and see whether XRP adoption strategies ultimately come to fruition.

Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

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Bitcoin Cash was created in 2017 when the first ever hard fork of the Bitcoin blockchain took place. The split was the result of Bitcoin’s 1MB blocks filling up. Transaction speeds were declining, fees were increasing, and it became clear to the community that the current model wasn’t sustainable for scaling.
In a move that still causes cryptocurrency fights to this day, Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash soon emerged as separate but similar projects. BCH has 8x the block size of BTC, giving it roughly 8x the transaction throughput. Its fees and transaction times are much faster, as predicted.
Learn more about Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash.

Stellar (XLM)

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The Stellar project and its associated Lumens (XLM) token was forked from the Ripple protocol in 2014. Stellar has come into its own since then, providing a blockchain connection service for fiat transactions between banks, payment systems, and people. Stellar is fast and reliable, and it works with practically no fees for the end-user.
Stellar is a payments system, meaning its job is to move money as efficiently as possible. Partnerships with banks and financial institutions were key in evaluating its status, as was the ability to actually send money using the network.
Several non-profits and commercial entities have agreed to use Stellar as part of their financial infrastructure. Recently, the team partnered with IBM and KlickEx to facilitate cross-border transactions in the South Pacific and announced an affiliate with Keybase to streamline international transactions.
Stellar also has projects being built on its network by major established entities. IBM’s blockchain division is using XLM for their payments infrastructure, for example, and the Veridium startup is working with both organizations to tokenize its carbon credits market.

Litecoin (LTC)

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Litecoin is a Bitcoin fork that was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee as a cheaper and faster (2.5 minute block time instead of 10) alternative to Bitcoin. This is accomplished predominantly because Litecoin uses a Scrypt hashing algorithm instead of the SHA-256 algorithm used by Bitcoin. It’s common to hear Litecoin called “digital silver” to Bitcoin’s “digital gold,” and in reality Litecoin does not really expand upon the functionality of Bitcoin in a significant way so much as it makes different tradeoffs.
That being said, it does succeed in being cheaper and faster to use than BTC, which has led to it being accepted by hundreds of merchants and thus making Litecoin one of the most widely used cryptocurrencies for digital payments.

Tether (USDT)

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Tether is an unusual project. Whereas most cryptocurrencies rise and fall in value, Tether was designed to stay the same, fixed at a 1:1 ratio with the U.S. dollar.
This allows users to store, send, and receive digital currencies across platforms without incurring significant losses due to value fluctuations.
The Tether stable coin sounds straightforward, but the project isn’t without controversy. USDT is supposedly backed by real USD sitting in a bank account. But in which account? Who controls it? And is Tether being used to manipulate the value of Bitcoin? It’s all part of the Tether controversy.

Monero (XMR)

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Released in 2014 as a fork of Bytecoin, Monero has since made a name for itself as the most popular privacy coin on the market.
Most cryptocurrencies offer little in the form of anonymity. Monero was built for privacy from the ground-up, featuring stealth addresses, ring signatures, and complete coin fungibility. All of this adds up to a near-perfect cloak of anonymity, allowing Monero users to conduct transactions without exposing their identity.
Monero has had steady growth over the years thanks to a dedicated team of developers and an active community. The project continues to evolve with new privacy features and improved transaction security.

NEO (NEO)

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NEO was founded in 2014 as one of the earliest smart contract platforms, giving it a wide breadth of possible functionality. The platform’s strongest use case is digitizing traditional assets so that they can be easily tracked and exchanged on the blockchain.
NEO is also well-known as the “Chinese Ethereum,” and the fact that it is a Chinese-based project does seem to make Chinese dapp developers somewhat more likely to build on top of it than other platforms.
In fact, NEO has already supported dozens of ICOs and remains one of the predominant platforms for supporting smart contracts and dapps.

Binance Coin (BNB)

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Binance Coin is an exchange token used to reduce trading fees on the Binance platform.
Users can opt to pay exchange, listing, and withdrawal fees using BNB and enjoy as much as a 50% discount on all charges. This turns out to be a powerful incentive for purchasing and holding BNB, as what trader doesn’t enjoy saving money on transactions?
Binance Coin is an ERC-20 token that runs on the Ethereum blockchain. Its purpose is extremely limited, but because such a vast number of Binance users transact with it every day, it qualifies as a working and active product.

Zcash (ZEC)

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Zcash is another immensely popular privacy coin that often cracks the top 20 cryptocurrencies. It uses the tagline “internet money” and promises to fully protect the privacy of transactions with zero-knowledge cryptography.
Zcash provides anonymity by shielding transactions on the blockchain, preventing anyone from seeing the sender, recipient, or value of each transaction. The technology is so effective the Ethereum team is investigating it to enable anonymous transactions on their network.
Zcash has grown in leaps and bounds in 2018. The dev team published a roadmap through the year 2020, which includes a major features upgrade in the October 2018 Sapling release. Coinbase is also considering listing Zcash, which is a huge boost for any cryptocurrency.

Qtum (QTUM)

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Qtum is a smart contracts platform similar to Ethereum, only with a stronger focus on value transfers and decentralized apps. It’s meant to be something of a hybrid between Bitcoin and Ethereum, allowing businesses to build smart contracts on the platform or just focus on cryptocurrency transactions.
Qtum launched in March 2017, and dashed straight to the top. The initial offering sold over $10 million in tokens after just 90 minutes. The project differentiated itself by providing a rare Proof-of-Stake smart contracts platform designed to compensate for some of Ethereum’s shortcomings, including lack of compatibility for mobile devices.
Qtum released its mainnet in September 2017, opening the doors to a fully functional smart contract and dapps platform. Several projects already have an established presence on the network. One of the more exciting ones is Space Chain, which aims to create an open-source satellite network anyone can use for data transmission, storage, and development.

0x Protocol (ZRX)

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0x Protocol has one of the most important working products in the entire Ethereum ecosystem. It is a permissionless, open-source protocol that facilitates trustless exchanges of Ethereum tokens through relayers and dapps that build on top of the protocol.
Not only has 0x been providing this functionality for over a year now, but they’ve been working to expand the protocol functionality significantly since that initial launch. In 0x protocol 2.0 and beyond, it will be possible to trade tokens built on standards besides ERC-20, including non-fungible ERC-721 tokens.
In a market full of scams and vaporware, 0x’s valuable contributions to the Ethereum ecosystem have made it one of the best performing cryptocurrencies of 2018.

Bytecoin (BCN)

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Bytecoin is another popular privacy-focused cryptocurrency with a strong community and user base. Transactions on the Bytecoin blockchain are instantaneous, untraceable, unlinkabe, and resistant to blockchain analysis.
Bytecoin has been around for a long time now, with contributions to the project beginning in 2012. However, that hasn’t stopped the project’s developers from continuously improving the product.
The recently updated Bytecoin roadmap has a hard fork for a consensus update scheduled for August 31, as well as numerous initiatives for community growth constantly in the works.

Decred (DCR)

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Founded in 2015 by former Bitcoin developers, Decred’s most important working product is its solution to Bitcoin’s biggest problem. No, not scalability… blockchain governance.
You see, early Bitcoiners have been debating block size limitations and the efficacy of other scalability solutions like the Lightning Network for years, even though the problem of scalability really only became discussed in the mainstream in 2017.
With its community-based governance model and strong adherence to the core ethos of decentralization, Decred is built to evolve and improve rapidly. That means that it’s equipped to handle not only the scalability problem today, but other big problems that might arise down the line.
When you have poor governance, it is an arduous process making any upgrades to a project, no matter how necessary they may seem to the majority of coin holders. Decred’s best-in-class and still improving governance model give it an intriguing case to be a leader in digital payments for a long time to come.

BitShares (BTS)

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BitShares aims to improve worldwide access to financial services via blockchain. The tagline “assist the unbanked” summarizes the project nicely. In practice, this translates to BitShares operating as a decentralized exchange, one that was built from the ground-up to avoid scalability issues and keep transaction fees low.
BitShares was launched in 2014 by Dan Larimer, who would then go on to take a lead development role in both EOS and Steem.
The current state of the project offers decentralized asset exchange, price-stable cryptocurrencies, recurring and scheduled payments, user-issued assets, and more, all available through a decentralized system powered by delegated PoS consensus.

Steem (STEEM)

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Steem is the cryptocurrency that powers Steemit, a decentralized social media platform that incentivizes user participation through micropayments. Think of it like Reddit, only instead of just upvoting or downvoting posts, users can actually reward creators for their effort.
Steem is a functional cryptocurrency used exclusively on the Steemit platform. That gives it something of a limited use, but seeing as how Steemit is live and boasts a few hundred thousand users, it’s hard to argue it isn’t a working product. Some people may even be earning money using Steemit.

Siacoin (SIA)

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Siacoin is one of the leaders in decentralized cloud storage, a more secure and affordable alternative to centralized cloud storage solutions like Amazon S3, Google Drive, iCloud, Dropbox, and others.
Sia 1.0 was launched in June 2016, and has achieved considerable adoption since then. With the $200 billion cloud storage market widely seen as one of the spaces most ripe for blockchain disruption, Sia has gotten off to a nice start by offering a functional decentralized cloud storage platform for over 2 years.

Augur (REP)

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Augur is one of the most recently launched products on this list. The platform mainnet went live in early July 2018, bringing to fruition almost 4 years of post-ICO work.
Augur is a decentralized prediction market that uses game theory to generate crowd-sourced insights. Essentially, thousands of people working together have shown the remarkable ability to forecast outcomes.
With Augur, users can put REP tokens as bets on these predictions, essentially creating a form of “useful social gambling.”
Augur’s release was a long time coming. The project started as far back as 2014, nearly a year before the ICO. The creators cite the complexity of Augur’s smart contracts as the chief cause of the lengthy development time.
Regardless of its past, Augur is now a live product with a bright future. Over 300 predictions have already been made, with the largest winning payout hitting $20,000. Betting volume even exceeded $1 million within the first weeks of launch.

Basic Attention Token (BAT)

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Basic Attention Token was one of the easiest projects to include on this list. That’s because its working product, Brave Browser, has more than 3 million active usersbetween its mobile and desktop platforms, making it one of the most widely-used working products in the blockchain space.
Not only is Brave Browser functional, it’s the only browser on the market that has built-in ad-blocking and tracker blocking, making the browsing experience both cleaner and faster than what you get with other popular browsers like Chrome and Firefox.
The future remains uncertain for the BAT token itself, as its adoption depends heavily on whether or not advertisers buy-in to the Brave model, as well as how willing Brave users are to be shown relevant ads and to pass along the BAT they earn to content publishers.
Given Brave’s success in just a short time since being launched, though, the future does appear promising for BAT.

Nano (XRB)

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Nano (formerly RaiBlocks) is all about scalability. The coin has nearly instant transactions with a completely fee-less structure. The platform accomplishes this by creating a unique blockchain for every account, preventing bloat and allowing for practically infinite scalability.
Nano’s motto of “do one thing and do it well” has gotten them a long way. The team doesn’t have to deal with scaling or slowdown issues thanks to the underlying structure of the project, allowing its roadmap to focus on wallet updates and outreach. This is one cryptocurrency that’s essentially feature complete, and it has been for some time.

Golem (GNT)

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Golem has set out to be the Airbnb of computing resources. Have you ever needed extra GPU power to finish up a render? How about processing scientific data similar to the [email protected] project?
Even if you don’t have those needs, a lot of groups do. Golem aims to provide easy access to those resources, all of which are rentable for a small cryptocurrency fee.
Golem hit the mainnet launch button in April 2018, and was met with a fair amount of fanfare. One of the main goals for the feature-incomplete launch was to push the product out so real users could put it to work.
The team was interested in strengthening their interactions with end users to help guide the future of the platform. The team has several major milestones planned for the coming months, so the mainnet release is only just the beginning.

Pundi X (NPXS)

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Pundi X has been shooting up the market cap rankings so far in Q3 2018, and they also happen to have a working product that just recently became available to retailers.
The primary Pundi X product is a point-of-sale (POS) device that enables quick and easy mobile transactions for both fiat and cryptocurrencies. 500 POS devices are already being used by retailers in Asia, and there are thousands more scheduled to be distributed in the coming months.
In addition, Pundi X also offers XPASS cards, cryptocurrency credit cards that can work in place of mobile apps for making digital payments.
What makes the Pundi X project noteworthy is that it enables consumers to pay retailers in cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH, and it immediately converts the payments into local fiat currencies so that retailers don’t need to worry about price volatility of the cryptocurrencies.
This makes it significantly easier for people to use cryptocurrencies in their daily lives, making Pundi X an exciting project for blockchain enthusiasts who are looking for signs of future mass adoption.

Waves (WAVES)

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Waves was the first ever blockchain platform that made it possible for anybody — regardless of their programming experience — to create blockchain tokens. Additionally, Waves has a decentralized exchange where tokens can be traded and exchanged with fiat currencies.
Since the project’s first releases in 2016, Waves has gone on to make their DEX accessible from mobile phones and expanded its functionality significantly, while also building several strategic partnerships to help grow the Waves community and user base.
Ultimately, though, the Waves Client is the project’s most important working product, as it is what allows tokens to be issued, stored, sent, and exchanged among users.

KuCoin Shares (KCS)

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Similar to Binance Coin, KuCoin Shares is an exchange token that can be used to pay reduced fees on cryptocurrency trades. KCS has the added bonus of paying dividends to long-term hodlers, as well, paying out a 5% ROI for most users.
The nature of KuCoin Shares is one of the reasons the KuCoin exchange has gotten so much attention since it appeared on the scene. The tokens themselves are limited in scope, of course, but the sheer number of people using them for trades and buying them for passive income is enormous.

Wanchain (WAN)

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Wanchain aims to build new and improved financial infrastructure to seamlessly connect the digital economy through blockchain interoperability. The use cases for Wanchain’s network are vast, and they include decentralized financial services, supply chain logistics, medical data sharing and security, digital ID management, and more.
With the recently released Wanchain 2.0, it is now possible to transfer Ether cross-chain using Wanchain’s Ethereum Mapping Token, WETH.
Ethereum interoperability is just the start, though, and it’s expected that cross-chain support for Bitcoin and a couple of ERC-20 tokens will follow before the end of 2018.

Komodo (KMD)

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Komodo is a fork of Zcash that uses the same zk-snark cryptography to hide information about transaction participants and amounts being sent. Functional privacy coins aren’t unique (there are a handful on this list) but Komodo does have some unique features.
For one, Komodo was the first ever decentralized initial coin offering. Moreover, Komodo helps other developers to build their own customizable blockchain solutions, from building and securing independent blockchains and launching decentralized ICOs, to integrating projects into the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
KMD would already qualify as a working product for its anonymity features on digital payments, but add the end-to-end blockchain building solution and it’s clear that Komodo is making meaningful contributions to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Ardor (ARDR)

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Ardor is a scalable blockchain platform that allows businesses to create their own child chains and tokens with relative ease. This helps keep blockchain bloat to a minimum and provides multiple transactional tokens without sacrificing core chain transactions. It’s also a remarkably energy efficient platform that uses Proof-of-Stake to power consensus.
Ardor launched its mainnet on January 1, 2018 after a full year in testnet status. Its core features are largely in place, with the roadmap set to improve things like scalability and snapshotting.
The Blockchain-as-a-Service-platform hosts a few projects of its own, including the Ignis ICO, which was the first child chain on the mainnet.

Huobi Token (HT)

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Huobi is a digital asset exchange platform founded back in 2013, now offering well over 250 different trading pairs. The Huobi Token, meanwhile, is an ERC-20 token that is used on the exchange for discounts on trading fees of up to 50%.
In addition, 20% of the income generated on the Huboi Pro trading platform is used to buy back HT on the open market.
Unlike most buyback programs, the main purpose of Huobi’s program isn’t to reduce the circulating supply of HT. Rather, the HT that is bought back goes into a Huobi Investor Protection Fund, which is used to compensate Huobi users if they lose coins or tokens on the platform, as well as to ensure market stability and protect investor interests.

ZenCash (ZEN)

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ZenCash is yet another privacy coin with a working product in the Top 100, originally launched in the first half of 2017.
What makes ZenCash unique is that it’s the first blockchain with Transport Layer Security (TLS) integration for node encryption, making communication on the ZenCash network both private and highly secure.
Some other interesting parts of the ZenCash product include Tor nodes and built-in chat messaging services. In the future, the ZenCash team will deliver a DAO Treasury Protocol-level Voting System as well as a scalability solution to handle greater transaction volume.

PIVX (PIVX)

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PIVX is another privacy coin that focuses on keeping users and their associated transactions hidden under a cloak of secrecy. The project also tries to keep transactions as fast and fee-less as possible, something not all privacy platforms can boast about.
PIVX launched in January 2016. The coin is currently spendable and delivers the privacy features it promises, though it’s not yet a widely accepted currency by merchants.
Future plans for PIVX include governance functions to engage the community, wallet voting, and its own zPIV decentralized exchange.

Kyber Network (KNC)

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Kyber Network launched their mainnet in Q1 2018, enabling instantaneous and secure inter-token settlements through a Decentralized Liquidity Network.
It’s currently possible to swap ERC-20 tokens on the network with just a few mouse clicks, giving it some basic functionality that is already being used to improve liquidity for Ethereum tokens.
In the future, however, Kyber Network will expand its functionality significantly in an effort to seamlessly connect dapps, DEXes, protocols, payment systems, token teams, investors, fund managers, and digital wallets.

Bancor (BNT)

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Bancor is a liquidity provider that enables users to exchange tokens without the need for a third-party to be involved in financing the transaction.
Gaining liquidity is incredibly important for young cryptocurrency projects, as a lack of liquidity makes it risky for investors to buy a considerable amount of a given coin or token, knowing that it might be exceedingly difficult to sell should they wish to.
Bancor’s technology makes it possible to convert one token to another, so that investors can be confident that they won’t be stuck involuntarily holding a cryptocurrency that they want to sell. This functionality makes the Bancor Liquidity Network one of the most promising working products on this list, and one that has already achieved a good deal of adoption.

Loom Network (LOOM)

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Loom Network is still less than a year old, having been founded in October 2017. However, they have accomplished a lot in that short time span, including having launched numerous tools to help software developers learn how to build blockchain solutions.
The most important of these tools — and Loom’s biggest working product — is the Loom software development kit (SDK).
However, Loom Network is far more than just a simple blockchain coding academy. It is also a production-ready scalability solution for Ethereum, as the Loom developer toolkit helps programmers to build highly scalable dapps which connect to the Ethereum blockchain through special side chains called DappChains.
The project may still be in its infancy, but Loom Network is already contributing more utility to the cryptocurrency ecosystem than the vast majority of other cryptocurrency projects.

Polymath (POLY)

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Polymath wants to be the world’s go-to resource for security tokens on the blockchain. What Ethereum did for tokens, Polymath will do for securities.
The advantages of this are enormous, but the Polymath team likes to point to 24/7 market access, the elimination of middlemen, and trading access for 2 billion unbanked people around the world as the chief benefits of their efforts.
The Polymath platform launched in October 2017, and has since released a new security token every week, attracting investors and traders alike. It’s not as exciting of a project as some other blockchain tech, but it’s delivering on its promises with a working product.

Bibox Token (BIX)

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Bibox is a encrypted digital asset exchange whose primary differentiator from other crypto exchanges is that it integrates AI technology.
The purpose of the AI is to help Bibox’s traders, which it does by providing quantitative computation and analysis of trading activity, personalized risk allocation strategy, speech recognition, and objective analysis of the various coins and tokens listed on the exchange.
The Bibox exchange first launched back in November 2017. It has operation centers in the US, Canada, mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Estonia. BIX token holders receive 20% of the exchange profits, and also get discounts on trading fees, similar to Binance.
https://www.investinblockchain.com/top-cryptocurrencies-working-products/
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Navigating Bitcoin, Ethereum, XRP: How Google Is Quietly Making Blockchains Searchable

Navigating Bitcoin, Ethereum, XRP: How Google Is Quietly Making Blockchains Searchable
It’s a balmy 80 degrees on a mid-December day in Singapore, and something is puzzling Allen Day, a 41-year-old data scientist. Using the tools he has developed at Google, he can see a mysterious concerted usage of artificial intelligence on the blockchain for Ethereum. Ether is the world’s third-largest cryptocurrency (after bitcoin and XRP), and it still sports a market cap of some $11 billion despite losing 83% of its value in 2018. Peering into its blockchain—the distributed database of transactions underpinning the cryptocurrency—Day detects a “whole bunch” of “autonomous agents” moving funds around “in an automated fashion.” While he doesn’t yet know who has created the AI, he suspects they could be the agents of cryptocurrency exchanges trading among themselves in order to artificially inflate ether’s price.
“It’s not really just single agents doing things on their own,” Day says from Google’s Asia-Pacific headquarters. “They’re forming with other agents to have some larger group effect.”
Day’s official title is senior developer advocate for Google Cloud, but he describes his role as “customer zero” for the company’s cloud computing efforts. As such it’s his job to anticipate demand before a product even exists, and he thinks making the blockchain more accessible is the next big thing. Just as Google enabled (and ultimately profited) from making the internet more usable 20 years ago, its next billions may come from shining a bright light on blockchains. If Day is successful, the world will know whether blockchain’s real usage is living up to its hype.
Danish researcher Thomas Silkjaer is using Google's BigQuery to map publicly available information about XRP cryptocurrency addresses. The craters represent some of cryptocurrency's largest exchanges.
Last year Day and a small team of open-source developers quietly began loading data for the entire Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains into Google’s big-data analytics platform, BigQuery. Then, with the help of lead developer Evgeny Medvedev, he created a suite of sophisticated software to search the data.
In spite of a total lack of publicity, word of the project spread quickly among crypto-minded coders. In the past year, more than 500 projects were created using the new tools, trying to do everything from predicting the price of bitcoin to analyzing wealth disparity among ether holders.
When it comes to cloud computing, Google is far behind Amazon and Microsoft. Last year Google pocketed an estimated $3 billion in revenue from cloud ser­vices. Amazon and Microsoft, meanwhile, generated about $27 billion and $10 billion, respectively.
Day is hoping that his project, known as Blockchain ETL (extract, transform, load), will help even the playing field. But even here Google is trying to catch up. Amazon entered blockchain in a big way in 2018 with a suite of tools for building and managing distributed ledgers. Microsoft got into the space in 2015, when it released tools for Ethereum’s blockchain. It now hosts a range of services as part of its Azure Blockchain Workbench. But while Amazon and Microsoft are focusing on making it easier to build blockchain apps, Day is focusing on exposing how blockchains are actually being used, and by whom.
“In the future, moving more economic activity on chain won’t just require a consensus level of trust,” says Day, referring to the core validating mechanism of blockchain technology. “It will require having some trust in knowing about who it is you’re actually interacting with.” In other words, if blockchain is to go mainstream, some of its beloved anonymity features will have to be abandoned.
A native of Placer County, California, Day got his first computer at the age of 5 and a few years later started writing simple programs. A fascination with volcanoes and dinosaurs turned his interest to life sciences, and he ultimately graduated from the University of Oregon with a dual degree in biology and Mandarin in 2000. From there he headed to UCLA to pursue a doctorate in human genetics and helped build a computer program to browse the genome.
It was at UCLA where Day began relying on distributed computing, a concept that is core to blockchains, which store their data on a large network of individual computers. In the early 2000s Day needed to analyze the massive amounts of data that make up the human genome. To solve this problem he hooked many small computers together, vastly increasing their power.
“Distributed-systems technology has been in my tool kit for a while,” Day says. “I could see there were interesting characteristics of blockchains that could run a global supercomputer.”
Hired in 2016 to work in the health and bio­informatics areas of Google, Day segued to blockchains, the hottest distributed-computing effort on the planet. But the talents he had honed—sequencing genomes for infectious diseases in real time and using AI to increase rice yields—were not easily applied to decoding blockchain.
Before Day and Medvedev released their tools, just searching a blockchain required specialized software called “block explorers,” which let users hunt only for specific transactions, each labeled with a unique tangle of 26-plus alphanumeric characters. Google’s Blockchain ETL, by contrast, lets users make more generalized searches of entire ecosystems of transactions.
To demonstrate how customers could use Blockchain ETL to make improvements to the crypto economy, Day has used his tools to examine the so-called hard fork, or an irrevocable split in a blockchain database, that created a new cryptocurrency—bitcoin cash—from bitcoin in the summer of 2017.
Google Cloud developer advocate Allen Day presents his early cryptocurrency work at Google's Asia Pacific headquarters in Singapore in August 2018. DORJEE SUN / PERLIN
This particular split was the result of a Hatfield and McCoy “war” within the bitcoin community between a group who wanted to leave bitcoin as it was and another who wanted to develop a currency that, like cash, was cheaper and faster to use for small payments. Using Google’s BigQuery, Day discovered that bitcoin cash, rather than increasing so-called micro-transactions, as the defecting developers claimed, was actually being hoarded among big holders of bitcoin cash. “I’m very interested to quantify what’s happening so that we can see where the legitimate use cases are for blockchain,” Day says. “Then we can move to the next use case and develop out what these technologies are really appropriate for.”
Day’s work is inspiring others. Tomasz Kolinko is a Warsaw-based programmer and the creator of a service that analyzes smart contracts, a feature of certain blockchains that is designed to transparently enforce contractual obligations like collateralized loans but with less reliance on third parties, like lawyers. Kolinko was frustrated with his blockchain queries.
In December, Kolinko met Day at a hackathon in Singapore. Within a month of the meeting, Kolinko was using Google’s tools to search for a smart contract feature called a “selfdestruct,” designed to limit a contract’s life span. Using his own software in conjunction with Day’s, Kolinko took 23 seconds to search 1.2 million smart contracts—something that would have taken hours before. The result: Almost 700 of them had left open a selfdestruct feature that would let anyone instantly kill the smart contract, whether that person was authorized or not. “In the past you couldn’t just easily check all the contracts that were using it,” Kolinko says. “This tool is both the most scary and most inspiring I’ve ever built.”
Day is now expanding beyond bitcoin and ethereum. Litecoin, zcash, dash, bitcoin cash, ethereum classic and dogecoin are being added to BigQuery. Independent developers are loading their own crypto data sets on Google. Last August, a Dutch developer named Wietse Wind uploaded the entire 400 gigabytes of transaction data from Ripple’s XRP blockchain, another popular cryptocurrency, into BigQuery. Wind’s data, which he updates every 15 minutes, prompted a Danish designer named Thomas Silkjaer to create a heat map of crypto flows. The resulting colorful orb reveals at a glance more than a million crypto wallets, including big ex­changes like Binance and London’s crypto debit card startup Wirex, which are neck deep in XRP transactions.
“Google has been a bit of a sleeping giant in blockchain,” says BlockApps CEO Kieren James-Lubin, who is partnering with Google to sell enterprise blockchain apps. In addition to Day’s work, Google has filed numerous patents related to the blockchain, including one in 2018 to use a “lattice” of interoperating blockchains to increase security, a big deal in a world where untold millions of crypto have been stolen by hackers. The company is also pushing its developers to build apps on the Ethereum blockchain, and Google’s venture arm, GV, has made a number of significant investments in crypto startups.
The giant, it seems, is waking up.
Reach Michael del Castillo at [email protected]. Cover image by Munshi Ahmed.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaeldelcastillo/2019/02/04/navigating-bitcoin-ethereum-xrp-how-google-is-quietly-making-blockchains-searchable/#5105408f4248
submitted by dForceProtocol to u/dForceProtocol [link] [comments]

Cocos-BCX:The decentralized gaming application & crypto assets creation platform

Cocos-BCX:The decentralized gaming application & crypto assets creation platform

I. Project Overview

Cocos-BCX is a platform used for the development, operation, management and transfer of decentralized applications and in-application assets on the blockchain ecosystem. The platform mainly includes three function modules:
(1)The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
(2)Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
(3)An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Cocos-BCX can allow developers to perform programming, debugging, and publishing of decentralized applications oriented to the blockchain environment, and hybrid architecture applications. Meanwhile, the platform integrates the distributed user account system, wallet and digital asset circulation platform based on the blockchain, which can realize the permanent saving and cross-chain use of in-application assets.

II. Project evaluation

(一) Market analysis

1. Market conditions | 8 points

The organizing pattern of productivity dominated by governments in some areas or industrial domains is apt to change in the context of bottlenecks existing for global scientific and technological progress, rising resource consumption, an aging population, and intensified geopolitical conflicts. In particular, in 2008, when Nakamot published his thesis "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System", discussions on blockchain and digital currency have gradually extended from technological aspects to economic, social and political, and other fields. The general public have begun to pay close attention to the impact of blockchain on social development as well as the role of digital currency in the world economy. Based on the decentralized characteristics of the blockchain and the vibrant vitality of the digital economy, the general public has enough confidence to predict that the decentralized "digital assets" will be a sweeping trend in the future, and will derive new business models and social values.
At the same time, in the development process of decentralized applications of different types, the game industry enjoys unique development advantages, because the game's production mode is the most sophisticated, enjoys the highest degree in terms of commercialization, and is one of the scenarios with the most profound foundation in terms of developers and users.
u Analysis: The game field has a huge room for development, which is highly consistent with the characteristics of the blockchain, and accords with the future development tendency of the digital economy.
The digital asset economy model carried by the project through the blockchain technology will assetize the content produced by the developer, enable the developer to continue reaping benefits during the use, management and transfer of his assets, and provide him with a convenient, decentralized game distribution channel; meanwhile, it helps players to transform the data formed by time and energy as well as the props they obtain as a result of their consumption into the assets that can be safely stored and circulated, offering players the right to manage and commercialize them.

2. Competition | 8 points

Since the last century till now, owing to the sustained efforts and promotion by a variety of IT technology game enterprises, the national and even global online game market is developing by leaps and bounds. If there is no systematic risks, such as policy regulation, vicious incidents and other factors, there will be no smooth and endless development momentum unless something unexpected happens. However, an objective analysis reveals that the current online game market is still dominated by IT technology companies, and even in a controlled and monopolized development, which, of course, also brings substantial profits, such as Tencent, Blizzard Tech.
u Analysis: It can be predicted that the Cocos-BCX project will hardly have any direct competitors in the strict sense for the time being, but will encounter a marginal pressure competitive environment from two dimensions. In summary, the classical IT game companies at home and abroad are massive in size and have obvious capital advantages. However, the Cocos-BCX project has an advanced philosophy and cutting edge technology, and thereby enjoys first-mover advantages for a breakthrough; The blockchain game project of the same business is currently marked by wide participation and generic applicability. But in comparison, the Cocos-BCX game industry has such advantages as a salient background, special project orientation and sophisticated development in technical modules, and therefore has greater development potential.

(二) Token Status

1. Token situation | 6 points

(1) Basic situation of Token
Token name: COCOS
Total tokens in circulation: 100 billion
Consensus mechanism: DPOS
(2) Token usage and allocation
Part I 82%: Cocos-BCX is used for the platform community construction in various ways, including but not limited to the witness' block reward, incentives for platform ecological developers, global community construction, marketing and promotion, industry alliances, eco-investment, research, financial and legal compliance. The use of this part of Cocos-BCX includes swapping by means of the consensus work contributions, free gifts, gifts in exchange for service, and gifts in exchange for other tokens, etc.
Part II, 18%: Cocos-BCX is intended as incentives for the sponsoring team of the project. The incentive part will set up a locking mechanism, which will be issued and unlocked one-third at the end of each year after Token generation, and the issuance will be completed within three years.

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u Analysis: The use of Token is mainly divided into two parts, among which, 82% is used for project development and construction. The remaining 18%, which has a locked position mechanism, is intended for team incentive and construction. The use design is rather rational, but the team part is slightly higher. Given that the industry is in the initial stage of development, it is of great importance to seize the first opportunity and acquire early traffic users. It is suggested that the proportion of Token used by the team be reduced slightly, which is more conducive to the long-term development of the project. It should be noted that the original holding distribution of Token has not been queried via the official channel, while this link for the conventional blockchain project are basically disclosed. Meanwhile, from the standpoint of ordinary investors, Token’s original holding ratio is also one of the important parameters for its investment.

2. Ecological cycle | 8 points

(1)The Token (COCOS) positioning of the platform: circulation media and governance proof in eco-economic activities
COCOS not only serves as a value exchange carrier and community participation proof for Cocox-BCX, but its orientation as a basic pricing Token is likely to play a critical role in the digital asset ecosystem. With the continuous development of the industry, a large quantity of decentralized digital assets will exist in multiple blockchain ecosystems according to different standards in the future, and the value existing in asset pricing media transcending the chain ecology will be infinitely magnified.
, which is specifically manifested in that developers and users can evaluate, compare, trade and manage digital assets of different chain ecosystems, worldview content, and technical standards based on COCOS. Meanwhile, as a primary and basic pricing medium, COCOS is positioned to become the necessary conditions for the blockchain industry to develop and trade financial products and derivatives of digital assets in the future.
(2)Basic use model of Token (COCOS)
Ø Value exchange medium within the platform ecosystem;
Ø Entrusted consensus equity share representative of the Cocos-BCX public blockchain;
Ø The reference and basis for the measurement of the participation in and contribution to the platform community.
(3)How to obtain Token (COCOS)
Ø Value creation: It includes the contribution of the behavior of creating digital assets, that is, developing games, making props, etc.
Ø Platform contribution reward: Users who contribute to the Cocos-BCX community is entitled to COCOS;
Ø Market transaction: Selling the prop assets obtained in the game to get COCOS;
Ø Behavioral incentives: Various effective behaviors within the Cocos-BCX platform, community and platform games will be converted into COCOS
according to a certain contribution degree.
u Analysis: The use model, scenario application, acquisition method, market orientation, etc. for the Token ecosystem design are all well deliberated, to be verified by the market.
The ecosystem design of the Token project not only takes the macroscopic use model and scenario application, but also gives a detailed description of the acquisition method. Another point that must be pointed out is that it has a clear market orientation and future prospect as soon as the design begins, therefore, in general the Token ecosystem design is well-considered and far-sighted. However, for the volatile blockchain market, the crux depends on whether the ecological design philosophy can keep pace with the times, which is very essential. In a word, in the face of massive uncertainties, it needs to be finally verified by the market.

(三) Team member

1. Founder | 8 points


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Haozhi Chen
China's renowned Internet serial entrepreneur, and has successively led and participated in the creation of Joyo.com, Xcar.com.cn, and cdn.yeeyan.org since 1999, and founded Chukong Technology in 2009. Chukong is a leading game development and distribution enterprise in China and a major maintainer and supporter of the Cocos-BCX global open source game engine and developer community.

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Xiaolong Yang
With over 14 years of experience in technology entrepreneurship and investment, he once co-founded China's leading entertainment social networking company. As an investor, he once worked for China's leading private equity fund, during which period, he led and participated in investment projects totalling over 1 billion US dollars, and realized the exit of some projects at home and abroad. His interests and expertise mainly concentrate on information technology of the global primary market and secondary market in the later stage, and macro multiple asset category investment, and has a profound understanding of the financial market mechanism and asset pricing. He is also an investment partner in China's major technology investment fund and provides counselling for Chinese and American hedge funds, venture capital funds and large enterprises.
u Analysis: Chen Haozhi, as a founder, has rich experience in the game industry, and enjoys widespread networking and abundant resources in the industry as being one of the early Internet entrepreneurs; Another founder, Yang Xiaolong, has a strong experience in technology venture capital investment, and has the expertise for global investment layout. On the whole, two co-founders have a prominent advantage in overall industry background and integrating resources.

2. Founding team | 8 points


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Kevin Yin: An early contributor of CocosChina community, NOI winner, and ACM guest. A senior developer of blockchain, and having years of experience in compilation and distributed computing. An investor of the blockchain technology.
Jane Jin: Responsible for CocosChina community, the "Aipuworks" incubator, etc., and an expert of the Techincal Committee for Blockchain, China Software Industry Association. Bachelor of Economics, Zhejiang Gongshang University, and mini-EMBA of Tsinghua University. He once served important functions in "Fortune Global 500" including Lucent, Nortel, NSN, Nokia, Intel and other multinational companies in the marketing, sales, executive and developer relationship domain.
James Jeon: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2012 to 2015, he served as CEO of Gurum Company, a South Korean subsidiary of Chukong Technologies, earning an annual revenue of over $30 million from the scratch for the South Korean company and leading the South Korean subsidiary in going public successfully.
Frederick Lim: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2014 to 2015, he served as co-CEO of Gurum Company, and was once the director of the Strategic Investment Department of Hyundai Group, responsible for investment in Internet, communication, telecommunications and other fields. He is a doctor of Engineering Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
Hirokuni Fujita: originally head of the Japanese subsidiary of Chukong Technologies. He graduated from Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, majoring in Interdisciplinary Cultural Studies.
Jason: preacher of the Cocos-BCX community and meanwhile, senior manager of the Cocos 2d-x global community. He started to program on the Commodore-64 computer when he was 8. In addition to developing the community, he was keen on studying mathematics, finance, C++ and improving his Chinese proficiency.
Qinzhou Wang: Since entering the game industry in 2009, he has worked in the brand market in ZOL. Com. CN, Howell Expo, host of ChinaJoy, and is responsible for the brand market in Chukong Technologies.
u Analysis: The special technological talent construction of the team technicians needs to be further strengthened. At present, there is a blockchain technician. The game background and the advantages of the international architecture building enjoy prominent advantages, and there are sufficient team members on the strategic level and in the aspect of ecological construction. It is worth mentioning that team building is stable, and there is a high level of consensus among team members, which is conducive to the robust development of the project.
One member of the founding team has experience in the blockchain project development, that is, Chief Technical Officer, who is a senior blockchain developer. He has many years of experience in compiling and distributed computing, and is also a technology investor of blockchain.
In the early stage, owing to the demand of the game industry in the Japanese and Korean markets, Japanese and Korean market leaders were specially arranged in the early team structure of Chukong Technologies. In particular, due to the prosperity and popularity of the game industry in the Korean market, two co-leaders were specially arranged for the Korea market, responsible for strategic and investment issues respectively.
Consultant Team | 8 points

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Zhe Wang: Founder of the Cocos engine, and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software Co., Ltd. He graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University, and later studied a postgraduate program at Department of Management Science, Xiamen University. He created the Cocos engine in 2011, which currently has 1.1 million registered developers worldwide and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions in the world. The Cocos engine has arrested the attention of platform vendors at home and abroad, and has established a long-term cooperative partnership with Microsoft, Google, ARM, Intel, Qualcomm, Samsung, Huawei and Tencent, etc.
Edith Yeung: One of some "Silicon Valley's Must Meet" investors as covered in Inc magazine. She is the head of 500 Startups, Silicon Valley's famous venture capital company and incubator in Greater China, and meanwhile, manages a Mobile Collective fund worth tens of millions of dollars. She has invested in over 40 mobile Internet, VR, AR and AI start-ups, including Hooked (App store's No. 1 reading App), DayDayCook (one of Asia's largest food communities), Fleksy (acquired by Pinterest), Human (acquired by Mapbox), AISense and so on.
u Analysis: The consultant team has obvious advantages in technological achievements, rich experience in technology innovation investment and incubation experience for startups.
The consultant team consists of a Maker-oriented technical talent and two venture capital managers with a senior venture capital background, among whom, Wang Zhe, technical consultant, graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software. Wang is the founder of Cocos-BCX engine. At present, the Cocos engine has 1.1 million registered developers and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions worldwide.

(四) Tech Analysis

1. Tech highlights | 9 points

(1) Smart contract system which can be updated iteratively: The smart contract system, represented by Ethereum, is not subject to modification once its definition is published, making it difficult to meet the volatile demands of market. Therefore, an iterative smart contract system is designed to address this pain spot.
(2) Prop circulation platform: Unlike conventional game transaction platform, Cocos-BCX's decentralized digital asset circulation platform does not have intermediary agencies. Players can complete the transfer and purchase of non-homogeneous assets, including "game gold coins" and prop assets acquired in the game on the prop circulation platform. In the whole process of transfer, the platform will adopt smart contract for automatic matching to help users complete the transfer process more efficiently.
(3) Game interactive operation environment:
Based on the judgment of the operation environment characteristics of blockchain games in the future, Cocos-BCX has designed a set of integrated operation environment that accommodates various types of APPs, as well as the supporting interoperability interface. Combined with COCOS Creator, it simplifies the process of docking game programs and blockchain, making intra-chain interaction transparent to developers, and allowing conventional game developers to develop or migrate blockchain game without a threshold.
(4) Mapping gateway that supports multi-chain and asset riveting:
Cocos-BCX provides a set of mapping gateways used for the automatic mapping of game gold coins and props. Under the unified value measurement system, it realizes the smooth transition of different in-chain game content and different platform content. The content that can be used for mapping includes game gold coins, game equipment data, etc.
(5) Transaction authentication mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating:
BP, as the core of transaction processing and communication of the whole network, can know the processing result of the latest transaction prior to general nodes. Therefore, BP enjoys a priority for information with timeliness or confidentiality
, as compared with general nodes, so it has a cheating potential in terms of
information acquisition. To address the drawbacks of this technical link, five modular confrontation mechanisms has been specially designed to hold the likelihood of BP/developer cheating at bay.
(6) Economies Principle Design of Cocos-BCX:
The Cocos-BCX platform carries the game assets value created by developers by providing a complete set of functional components including the underlying public blockchain, digital property management, and exchanges. Its technology and governance structure design, based on the graphene standard, has the economic attributes corresponding to the DPoS consensus mechanism.
u Analysis: There are a multiplicity of technical highlights in that the overall technology construction shows characteristics such as rigid logic and prominent modularity, and various technical solutions and mechanisms with a strong pertinence have been put forward.
Based on the market pain spots of the game industry, and combined with the development opportunities of blockchain technology, the Cocos-BCX project puts forward a vision system to create consistence between the content producer and consumer in the digital world. In view of the initial intention of the project and the relatively profound background of the game industry, the overall technical structure design of the project is highly targeted and has a strong logic, which can be described as closely connected with each other. Based on the large technical framework system, each technical link and organization also has a strong sense of target and logical gene, and on this basis, many modular and modified technical programs or mechanisms have been proposed. However, it is worth noting that the synergy of a series of highlight technologies remains to be verified and examined. Meanwhile, attention should also be paid to the practicability and rationality.

2. Impossible Triangle | 7 points

(1) Decentralization
Ø Low fork risk: Cocos-BCX uses the DPoS consensus mechanism, which does not require miners to use mining machines for mining, and thereby it can effectively avoid the impact of centralized computing on the entire basechain, which in turn reduces a low fork risk. Under the DPoS mechanism, if a witness wants to fork by voting, it is necessary to guarantee that over one third of the witnesses violate this mechanism at the same time.
Ø Improved DPOS consensus mechanism: The consensus layer of the Cocos-BCX test chain adopts the DPoS consensus algorithm. The advantage characteristics of the improved edition DPOS are as follows: all active witnesses have the same block predefined probability as the witnesses' predefined algorithm in the DPoS consensus algorithm, which ensures that the block probability of all witnesses is consistent with the block reward.
Ø Lightweight node: In Cocos-BCX design, lightweight node is essentially an environment with chain interoperability. Unlike the whole node, the lightweight node does not require to synchronize the whole network data. Instead, it needs the contract information and environment data required for synchronous running. This design can greatly reduce the data volume and synchronization time required for node synchronization, enabling the in-chain game terminal software to have a capacity which is actually used and a plausible time cost.
(2) Security
Ø Player autonomy and asset security: Because of the open and transparent characteristics of the blockchain network, the digital asset information obtained by players in the game can be viewed through the blockchain.
Ø Guarantee by modern cryptography: Modern cryptography is a technology based on mathematics. Currently, it has been widely used in many industries in the Internet domain. Common symmetric encryption technologies include AES encryption used for WiFi, and asymmetric encryption algorithms (public and private key cryptography) RSA, ECC, etc., among which, ECC (Elliptic Curves Cryptography) is an encryption algorithm commonly used in the blockchain field.
Ø A transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating: BP enjoys a priority compared with general nodes, so it has the probability to cheat in terms of information acquisition. Therefore, the BCX program has designed a set of transaction execution, messaging, and operating mechanisms to address the possible links that allow cheating by BP and developers.
Ø Iterative updated smart contract system: It can provide logical updating and loophole repair for the in-chain game smart contract, thus ensuring the security and timeliness of the smart contract.
(3) Expandability:
Ø Strong expandability of the top-level design of the project
The expandability of Cocos-BCX is powerful, which is specifically shown in a decentralized game production and an overall solution to the game economy operation established by means of the game engine, development environment and Cocos-BCX game chain.

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A business ecosystem is constructed based on the above overall solution, with the purpose of connecting the global game ecosystem. The main ecological links include developers, users, creative content, key ecological links and blockchain system, etc.

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Ø Expanded design of specific technologies and mechanisms
  1. Multi-platform game integration running environment: This platform is mainly characterized by four features, consistent and perfect chain interoperability interface, downward transparent accepting mode, encapsulated atomic operation and multi-platform compatibility.
  2. Interactive interface of blockchain:
Cocos-BCX provides a chain-interactive development environment so that developers can easily interact with the chain through this set of environment. Meanwhile, its blockchain interactive development environment provides development components compatible with multiple working platforms, including SDK for the Android and iOS system, javascript libraries for front-terminal web applications, and python and PHP libraries for back-terminal applications.
u Analysis: The expandability of the project's "impossible triangle" shows the most prominently, and the decentralized attribute is the weakest, whose security is between the two. However, the project takes the three into consideration in terms of the technical mechanism and program function. Yet, the focus is different.
The project interprets the “impossible triangle” by means of thinking and design that focus on technical aspects and key issues.
The security level first guarantees the assets security and freedom of the ecosystem participants, and meanwhile ensures the rationality and security of the overall framework design, and finally takes its system updating and safe recovery into consideration mainly by means of player autonomy, modern cryptography and transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating.

3. Development difficulty | 8 points

According to the summary of the project white paper, the blockchain game can be generally divided into four developmental stages.
(1)Using the homogeneous assets for the settlement of the game "gold coins";
(2)Free conversion of the game "gold coins" and props;
(3)In-chain operation of critical rules;
(4)Overall in-chain operation of the game
The game in-chain operation is the final form of the industry. Based on the above summary, Cocos-BCX proposes the future development prospect, mainly represented in seven aspects:
(1)Players having a lightweight full-node environment;
(2)The service stack operating in the blockchain environment;
(3)The game engine as one of the node infrastructures;
(4)Providing a joint development/debugging environment including engine, visual IDE, and chain network interactive interface;
(5)a set of asynchronous consensus tasks between nodes to ensure the trustworthiness of the engine environment. This consensus may be based on the discrimination of feature code of
the engine critical function's target code
(6) The game code (contract) is executed by the secure virtual machine controlled by the engine, and the key numerical calculation of the contract may adopt
the “Trusted Execution Environment” scheme, which is executed independently of the main part of the contract;
(7) The key process of the contract is witnessed by the adjacent or related nodes (like players in a copy).
u Analysis: The project covers a multiplicity of technical characteristics and functional mechanisms. The overall development is rather difficult. However, it is highly practicable in terms of performance.
At the initial stage of the project, four stages of blockchain game development were analyzed. After combing, the highest prospect was proposed, implicating to create a complete multi-platform game running environment, which can provide game developers with convenience in developing blockchain games and a perfect ecological environment to the maximum, while bringing game users a brand-new gaming experience and a game form that transcends the previous ones.
Based on the initial project prospect, numerous technical goals and functional modules are listed, indicating that the technical support for the project vision is rather effective. However, as public blockchain of the industry application basis, it encompasses various technical applications and functional modules. Comparatively speaking, the development difficulty is rather big. Meanwhile, as released by the white paper, the theoretical throughput of the Cocos-BCX test chain can reach up to 100,000 tps. The actual throughput is approximate to 3,500 tps, and the block time is 3 seconds, that is, the information broadcast across the entire network is completed once every 3 seconds. It can be seen from the project technical performance data that it has a relatively strong realistic significance. Therefore, on the whole, the project puts forward a sizeable technical challenge, and in the meantime has a reasonable practicability, therefore, it is worthwhile to look forward to!

(五) Project status

1. Product | 7 points

(1)System-level products
Ø The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
Ø Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
Ø An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Ø Supporting non-homogeneous wallets;
Ø A blockchain browser that supports the contract event subscription;
Ø Supporting the third-party non-homogeneous asset exchanges;
Ø Supporting the blockchain game developed by a third party;
Ø Cross-chain asset acceptance gateway.
(2) Functional products
Ø De-intermediary assets (prop) operation interface;
Ø Paradigms of non-homogeneous assets circulation platform;
Ø Supporting player autonomy and blacksmith shop mechanism;
Ø Visual IDE (including visual editing of the game program and contract);
Ø Complete wallet, user system and blockchain browser;
Ø Smart contract system that allows iterative updating.
u Analysis: According to the information released on the official website of the project, the timeline shows that the Cocos-BCX main chain has started the closed beta test in the third quarter of 2018. Based on the obvious characteristics of the project technology module, Cocos-BCX has launched two series of projects, namely, system-level and function-level products, including development frameworks, blacksmith shop mechanisms tailored to various operations and multiple environment.

2. Code updating | 2 points

u Analysis: It is learned from official communication that the source code of the project has not been made public for the purpose of keeping the project's trade secret confidential. It is planned that the project will be open source in the future after the ecological and system products become gradually stabilized.

3. Completion status | 8 points

u Analysis: The project has formulated an overall development plan and recent work tasks, and at the same time it has demonstrated its strong vitality through weekly report, timeline and development broadcast.
According to the official channel inquiry, the project has formulated the Roadmap for the 2018 key milestone quarter and the recent detailed work task breakdown plan, and the project has a very complete display system featuring three major development progresses:
(1) Weekly reporting system
(2) Project timeline
(3) Development broadcast
Through the Roadmap+ work breakdown + 3 major system model, the project's development trajectory and dynamics have been display in a basically three-dimensional, spatial, meticulous and detailed manner, and in the meantime, the powerful execution and self-vitality of the project have been also displayed.

(六) Institution enabling (Investors)

1. Cooperative institutions | 9 points


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u Analysis: Cocos-BCX has a wide margin for cooperation, and its cooperation institutions are not only numerous, but also mainly of leading and quality enterprises in the industry.
The cooperative institutions include HelloEOS, NEO, NEBULAS (chain), Loom, IMEOS.ONE, Kingsoft Cloud and SlowMist Technology, etc.
NEO is one of the earliest blockchain projects in China. It was officially created in 2014 and was open sourced in real time in Github in June 2015. Since its establishment, the NEO team has experienced ups and downs of the blockchain industry. This project can be said to be a veteran project in the industry. NEO combines with a series of technologies, such as point-to-point network, Byzantine fault tolerance, digital certificate, smart contract, superconducting transactions, and cross-chain interoperability protocols, to perform rapid, efficient, secure, and legitimate smart management of assets.

2. Investment institutions | 9 points


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u Analysis: There are numerous investment institutions, many of which are Class I institutions, with a strong institutional strength.
Investment institutions include NGC, Binance, INB Capital, Dfund, 500 Startups, BlockVC, OK Blockchain Capital, Yisu Capital, Xiong'an Capital, ONTology, FreeS FUND, NODE Capital, Consensus Capital, Hash Capital, NEO Capital, Ticker Capital , ContractVC, Junwu Capital, Candy Capital, Hofan VC, BMETA Capital, BYTE Capital, Nimble Capital, InsurFun, BA Capital, Consensus Lab, TOKENMANIA, Byzantium Capital, etc.
The rest investment institutions are also well-known. For example, DFUND was founded by Zhao Dong, a well-known figure in the digital currency domain in July 2017. Yisu Capital is engaged in the early investment and project cooperation, focusing on blockchain technology and big data intelligence analysis, and other domains.

(七) Drawing attention | 6 points


https://preview.redd.it/fa3k060vtb821.png?width=605&format=png&auto=webp&s=ca3b6a4b185c81bbafb5bccb571a43b9bbaba148
Project content description

https://preview.redd.it/y6w1f3hvtb821.png?width=796&format=png&auto=webp&s=8f3b2116d63a77f839a1e18787dd986c34a573a3
u Analysis: The game user and developer group are highly active, and meanwhile the publicity of the media and news client are enhanced. The overall heat and operation and maintenance thinking are well-balanced. However, the current community operation link is relatively weak, and requires improvement in the follow-up.
Presently, the number of community fans is small. Therefore, the operation link of project content is rather weak. However, media communication and news broadcasting, two links of propaganda and promotion efforts, are quite effective, basically realizing a timely and real-time posting of the latest developments of the project. Although the media and news client are widely disseminated, their social interaction is relatively weak. The social platform has its own communication limitations. However, it is highly involved in interaction.

(VIII) Social Response | 7.78

User A | Point: 7.9
Comment: From the perspective of production mode and commercialization, this game is the most sophisticated. So I think this project has a very extensive application scenario, especially for developers and users.
User B | Point: 7.0
Comment: Currently, it seems that the game industry is greatly influenced by macro policies. Tencent's recent performance is a case in point. However, the project orientation is quite good.
User C | Point: 8.0
Comment: The technical advantages of the project are particularly prominent, and it also seizes the development opportunities of the blockchain. However, ultimately it needs to undergo the test of the market.
User D | Point: 9.0
Comment: First of all, COCOS has a large number of developers, solid underlying technology and reliable team work, which is worth looking forward to. Of course, great "undertaking" calls for enormous input, especially in technology. The way is arduous and long. Come on.
User E | Point: 7.0
Comment:
As a game practitioner, I would talk something about Cocos-BCX project: when the concept of blockchain game is put forward for everyone to consider, at this stage, it is no doubt that the dimension (type) of the game is developed from the perspective of "inheritance" and "tracing its very origin". If the Cocos-BCX project can be applied by game developers in terms of "development kit", is easy to learn and use, and allows the mobile game developers to shift to the development of blockchain games without a threshold, then the game dimensions and users can be further expanded. In a word, phenomenal games of blockchain games need the support of Cocos-BCX and the efforts of developers, both of which are indispensable. It is hoped that the team will make great efforts in development and publicity. "Coin friends" may not need to know how the game is developed, but they will certainly care about its future space. Such evaluation can only be called prospects and expectations. It remains to be determined whether the project adopts capital operation or the mode as solid as the old engine of COCOS till the project is landed.

III. Evaluation Summary

The project orientation is accurate, and the team has a strong lineup. It merits pointing out that its technical strength and model architecture design are particularly prominent, and there are an array of investment and cooperation institutions with strong strength. However, at present, the code has not been open sourced and the community operation and maintenance is deficient. The information disclosure of the Token link is not particularly perfect, and individual investors may care much about it. The Roadmap of the project development is all too simple. These are the deficiencies of the project development at the current moment.
submitted by ONETOPGlobal to u/ONETOPGlobal [link] [comments]

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